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2019年02月17日 02:11:53 | 作者:飞度排名快速问医生 | 来源:新华社
Nongzheng Quan,shu《农政全书》Nongzheng Quanshu (also Comprehensive Treatise on Agricultural Admin-istration) ,was written by Xu Guangqi (1562~1633) in the late Ming Dynasty.Born in the Songjiang area in Jiangsu Province ( now in Shanghai) where agriculture was very advanced, he was devoted to the agricultural development all his life.During the three-year period of mourning for his deceased father, he con-ducted in his hometown massive agricultural and ploughing experiments, and then went to Tianjing for similar experiments several times, the consequence of which was the completion of the agricultural encyclopedia. He died in his tenure of office,and it was his friend who helped publish the book in the 12th year of the reign of Emperor Chongzhen, i.e.in 1639.The book is divid-ed into 60 volumes, including the agriculture-oriented thought, land policy, water conservancy, farm tools, arboriculture, sericulture, animal husbandry,relief poliaes and the like. Besides summarizing his experiences of succeeding in growing crops and cot-ton, he went into details about water conservanolt and relief policies. He studied the lean years in the Chinese history, even delving into the concrete situations of the ill locust plagues which ever happened in China. The most effective way of putting an end to the lean years, he believed, was to establish the water conservancy projects on a large scale. In the Northwest, as he instantiated his point, instead of delivering grain from Southeast with great efforts, people should learn to reclaim the wasteland and establish the water conservancy projects on a large scale, turning Northwest into a major grain yielding area. A great num-ber of reference books written before or at the time were recorded h Non,gzheng Quanshu ,and the understandings and perspectives of the author presented.It was a great agricultural work of special importance in the Ming Dynasty.《农政全书》由晚明徐光启( 1562~1633)著。徐光启生于农业发达的江苏松江地区,他一生热爱农业,在为父亲丁忧的三年间,在家乡进行了较大规模的农业耕种试验,后又几次赴天津进行农业试验,写出这部农业百科全书。他死在任上,是朋友帮助将这部书于崇祯十二年( 1639)刊行的。全书60卷,分农本、田制、水利、农器、树艺、蚕桑、牧养、荒政等门,除总结自己种植粮食作物和棉花的成功经验外,还对水利和荒政以较大篇幅进行了研究。他研究了中国历代的荒年,甚至仔细研究了111次蝗灾的具体情况。他认为要彻底消灭荒年就要大兴水利,比如在大西北,与其耗费运力从东南运送粮食,不如开垦西北荒地,大兴水利,把大西北建成产粮基地。书中辑录了大量前代和当时的文献,也提出作者的心得和见解,是明代重要的农业科学巨著。 /201601/419328Dengfeng Astro Observatory登封观星台Dengfeng Astro Observatory is located at Gaocheng Town,15 kilometers southeast of Denpfenq City,Henan Province.It is the most ancient as-tronomical observatory extant in China.登封观星台位于河南省登封市城东南巧千米的告城镇,是中国现存最古老的天文台。Performing the functions of measuring the shadow cast by the sun,observing celestial bodies,and telling time,the Astro Ob-servatory is an ancient scientific heritage with significant research value.该观星台具有测影、观星和记时等功能,是具有重要研究价值的古代科学遗产。It was built in the 13th year of the Emperor Zhiyuan(AD 1276),(in the Yuan)by Guo Shou-jing and Wang Xun as directed by the emperor, and was among the 27 astronomi-cal observatories in the country at that time.该台为至元十三年(1276年)郭守敬、王询等人奉救所建,是当时全国修建的27个天文观测站之一。The observatory, of masonry con-strudion,consists of the platform body and the stone gnomon(commonly named as heaven measuring ruler).With a square plane,the observatory is narrow in the top and large at the bottom. It is 12. 62m in overall height.At the north of the observatory are two symmetrical step entrances for obser-vation.台为砖石混合结构,由台身和石圭(俗称量天尺)两部分组成。台的平面呈方形,台体上小下大,通高12. 62米。台北设有两个对称的踏道口可以登台眺望。The center of the northern wall is built into a hollow groove that is perforated through from top to bot-tom,so the higher gnomon at the groove’s straight wall and the stone gnomon at the bottom constitute a se-ries of gnomon apparatus for measur-ing the length of the shadow cast by the sun.北壁中间砌成一个上下直通的凹形直槽,凹槽直壁与横梁组成的高表与台下石圭形成一组测量日影长度的圭表装置。The stone gnomon at the bottom of the groove is connected with 36 blocks of blue stone from south to north,and is 31 .2m in length and 0. 58m in width. The gnomon is canned with two parallel two-way watercourses. To the south of the watercourses is a suction sump,and to the north a discharge sump. Each sump has scales for measuring the levelness.槽底石圭自南向北由36方青石连接而成,长31.2米,宽0. 58米,上刻两条平行双股水道。水道南端有注水池,北端有泄水池,池中有刻度,用以测量水准。 /201511/409362In a sign of the political mood in Taiwan, the top free application in Apple’s App Store there for much of last week wasn’t a mobile game or a social network, but a tool of protest.上周很大一部分时间里,苹果应用商店在台湾排名最高的免费应用不是手机游戏,也不是社交网络应用,而是一款抗议工具。这是台湾政治氛围的一个标志。Named Bingdela — after a Taiwanese phrase associated with overturning a table in rage — the software allows users to check whether food or drink products are associated with Ting Hsin International, a conglomerate that last year was the center of a food safety scandal involving its cooking oil.该应用名为“冰的啦”,在闽南语里意为愤怒地掀桌。用户可以用它来查看食物或饮料产品是否与顶新国际有关联。这家企业集团去年爆发了涉及食用油的食品安全丑闻。Though the app first appeared last year, downloads spiked during the past week after a court in Taiwan ruled that the chairman of Ting Hsin was not guilty of a charge accusing him of violating Taiwan’s food safety law — even though his company knowingly imported products intended for animal feed and used them to make low-quality oil. The app’s creator, Sky Lin, said it had gotten the bulk of its 260,000 downloads during the past two weeks.虽然该应用最早发布是在去年,但是上周,在台湾法院裁定顶新集团主席违反台湾食品安全法的罪名不成立之后,它的下载量出现了飙升。顶新集团明知进口的这种油品是用于生产动物饲料的,却仍用它们来生产劣质油。该应用的开发者林亮宇(Sky Lin)表示,它已经被下载26万次,大量下载出现在过去两周。“People couldn’t find a place to vent their anger, and that’s where our product came in to play a role,” said Mr. Lin, who added that he originally made the app not for profit or self-promotion, but instead out of raw political anger.“人们找不到地方发泄愤怒,而这也正是我们的产品的用武之地,”林先生说。他最初开发这个应用不是为了赚钱,也不是想宣传自己,而是出于政治上的强烈愤慨。The power of social media as an implement of political expression is well known. But Mr. Lin’s product shows how apps can be specifically designed to solve more complicated problems of protests. In this case, widesp calls for boycotts of Ting Hsin’s products proved difficult because the conglomerate has several subsidiaries and sells its oil to other companies for use in their products.作为一种政治表达工具,社交媒体的力量是众所周知的。但林先生的产品显示了应用可以专门设计用来解决抗议活动中的一些更复杂的问题。在这个案例中,虽然人们广泛呼吁要抵制顶新的产品,但事实明要做到这一点相当困难,因为该集团拥有多家分公司,而且还销售食用油给其他企业用于生产不同品牌的产品。The ability to tackle more complex problems gives people the ability to do more in situations where regulators or governments do not do their jobs effectively, according to Mr. Lin.林先生认为,遇到监管机构或政府不能有效地做好本职工作的情况,为公众提供可以解决更复杂问题的工具,就赋予了他们做更多事情的能力。“There are structural issues creating these types of food safety problems in Taiwan. It’s a deeper issue with Taiwanese law and government. It’s not an isolated case. We have seen it happen again and again,” he said.“台湾有一些结构性弊端造成了这种食品安全问题。这是台湾法律和政府的一个深层问题。它不是一个孤立事件。我们看到这种事情在接二连三地发生,”他说。Mr. Lin said he expected more of this type of protest to come to the fore in Taiwan as activists gain stronger programming abilities. He and his team, who normally work on an app that is a guide to Taiwan’s bars, were able to create the protest app in just two weeks, mostly by reusing code they had aly developed.林先生表示,随着活动人士的编程能力日益增强,他预计台湾会涌现出更多的这类抗议软件。他和团队的本职工作是经营一个台湾酒吧指南应用。他们主要通过回用以前代码的方式,在短短两周内开发出了这个抗议应用。The most labor-intensive part, according to Mr. Lin, was researching the products linked to Ting Hsin and photographing them to assemble a graphical database of items that should be flagged. Friends pitched in to provide other photos and research.林先生说,在整个项目中,人力需求最密集的部分是研究哪些产品和顶新集团有关联,然后给它们拍照,输入到一个可疑产品的图形数据库中。朋友们热心地为团队提供了其他一些照片和研究结果。With the app now doing well, a new question facing Mr. Lin is whether to fund it.这个应用现在表现不错,但林先生面临着如何为其提供资金的新问题。“The second day after it happened, I was contacted by an advertising agent, and they argued that we’ll need advertising if we want long-term development. But for me personally, I don’t want to see ads when using this app,” he said.“发布后的第二天,有一家广告代理联系我,说如果我们想长期发展的话,就需要投放广告。但在我个人来说,我不希望在使用这个应用的时候看到广告,”他说。Offers for sponsorships have also come in, but Mr. Lin said those, too, were problematic, because large sums from different organizations or companies could ultimately compromise the fairness of the app down the line.也有一些赞助商表示愿意提供资金,但林先生认为这样做也会有问题,因为来自不同组织或公司的大笔资金最终可能会产生影响,危及应用的公平性。Mr. Lin is still trying to figure out what to do with Bingdela. Some have suggested that his team should add other brands that have had past issues, but he said that for now he was still trying to figure out how to round up funding.林先生仍在考虑“冰的啦”的未来。有些人认为,他的团队应该把过去有过丑闻的其他品牌也添加进来,但他表示,目前他仍在考虑获得资金的方式。“We have received a lot of encouragement, some of which actually were quite touching. It gave me the motivation to do more. My wife said, ‘That’s not your expertise.’ I think Taiwan needs such a platform to do this, whether it be the government or a nongovernment entity. We need this to fundamentally fix some damages caused by economic development,” he said.“我们收到了大量鼓励,有些的确相当感人。这让我有了做更多事情的动力。我太太说,‘这不是你的专长。’我觉得台湾需要有这样一个平台来做这个,无论是政府还是非政府机构。我们需要这个来从根本上修复经济发展带来的一些损害,”他说。 /201512/416122

When Pakistan’s military claimed its first attack in October using a home-built drone to hit a Taliban stronghold, western officials were quick to search for clues to a Chinese connection.巴基斯坦军方去年10月宣布首次使用国产无人机打击一个塔利班据点后,西方官员们很快着手寻找中国技术的线索。Experts say Pakistan’s “Burraq”, one of the two types of indigenously built armed drone, bears a striking resemblance to China’s CH-3.专家们表示,巴基斯坦两款国产武装无人机之一“Burraq”与中国的虹-3(CH-3)无人机有着惊人的相似之处。Pakistani officials lauded the drone that equipped the country with a technology that has been denied them by the US in 15 years as a key Washington ally in the campaign against terror.巴基斯坦官员称赞这种无人机填补了该国的一个技术空白,尽管该国15年来一直是美国反恐战争中的关键盟友,但美国始终拒绝提供这种技术。“The Americans have given us billions of dollars and military equipment like F-16s since the 9/11 attacks,” says one senior Pakistani foreign ministry official. “But whenever we asked for armed drones, we were refused and the Americans always told us that was sensitive technology.”“9/11恐怖袭击发生后,美国人给了我们数十亿美元援助和F-16战斗机等军事装备,”巴基斯坦外交部一名高级官员表示。“但我们每次要求获得武装无人机都遭到拒绝,美国人总是告诉我们,那是敏感技术。”Although Pakistani officials deny suggestions of Chinese involvement in the country’s drone programme, western officials remain unconvinced as military ties between Beijing and Islamabad tighten.尽管巴基斯坦官员否认中国参与该国无人机计划的说法,但鉴于北京和伊斯兰堡之间的军事关系越来越密切,西方官员不相信巴基斯坦的否认。Earlier this year, China confirmed an agreement to sell eight submarines to Pakistan in Beijing’s largest ever single defence export order.去年,中国实将向巴基斯坦出售8艘潜艇,这是中国史上最大的单笔军工出口订单。Rana Tanveer Hussain, Pakistan’s minister of defence production, has confirmed that half of the eight submarines will be built at the Karachi shipyard and engineering works, boosting Pakistan’s shipbuilding capacity.巴基斯坦国防生产部长拉纳映维尔侯赛因(Rana Tanvir Hussain)已确认,8艘潜艇中的一半将在卡拉奇船厂和机器制造厂建造,从而提高巴基斯坦的造船能力。“The two projects [building four submarines in China and four in Pakistan] will begin simultaneously,” he said, while commending China as an “all-weather friend”.“这两个项目(在中国和巴基斯坦分别建造4艘潜艇)将同时开始,”他表示。他赞赏中国是一个“全天候的朋友”。Analysts say Pakistan is seeking to make China its main supplier of military hardware, partly due to the looser financial terms offered by Beijing, replacing traditional suppliers from the west.分析人士表示,巴基斯坦正寻求将中国当作其主要的军事装备供应方(在一定程度上是由于北京方面的财务条款比较宽松),取代传统的西方供应商。One indication of China’s emergence as a rising arms exporter was highlighted in a recent report by the Sweden-based Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, which concluded that China had increased its arms exports 143 per cent in the past five years, replacing Germany to become the world’s third-largest exporter after the US and Russia. China’s biggest customer during the period was Pakistan which, according to Sipri, bought 41 per cent of China’s exported arms.瑞典的斯德哥尔国际和平研究所(SIPRI)近期一份报告突显中国作为一个武器出口国的地位不断上升。该报告的结论是,过去五年里中国的武器出口增长143%,使其超越德国,成为世界第三大军火出口国,仅次于美国和俄罗斯。在此期间中国军火出口的最大客户就是巴基斯坦;据斯德哥尔国际和平研究所估算,巴基斯坦购买了中国军火出口的41%。“China’s capacity to indigenously produce military platforms has made significant gains over the past decade or so, and gone are the days when it simply used to copy Soviet or Russian designs, so countries buying Chinese equipment like Pakistan certainly stand to gain,” says Peter Felstead, editor of IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly, the global defence publication.“过去10年期间,中国自主研制武器平台的能力取得了长足进展,只能复制苏联或俄罗斯设计的日子早已过去了,因此巴基斯坦等国购买中国的装备肯定是有利的,”全球防务刊物《简氏防务周刊》(IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly)主编彼得菲尔斯塔德(Peter Felstead)表示。“The gap between Chinese capabilities and those of the west have been narrowed, except in a few areas such as the production of aero-engines, for which Chinese-built platforms remain dependent on Russian imports.”“中国与西方之间的技术能力差距已经收窄,只有少数领域除外,如航空发动机的生产,为此,中国制造的飞机平台仍依赖从俄罗斯进口的发动机。”Mr Felstead’s reference to Russian components is most visible in the case of the JF-17 “Thunder” fighter jet, jointly manufactured by China and the Pakistan Air Force at its Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, just north of Islamabad. A senior Pakistan defence ministry official confirmed that the JF-17, which will become the PAF’s main second-line fighter jet, will be “powered for the foreseeable future” with the Russian-built RD-93 engine, overlooking Beijing’s offer of a Chinese engine.菲尔斯塔德提到的俄制组件在巴基斯坦空军的JF-17(中国称为“枭龙”,代号FC-1)战斗机上最为明显。中巴在伊斯兰堡以北的巴基斯坦航空综合企业(Pakistan Aeronautical Complex)联合生产此型战机。巴基斯坦国防部一名高官实,将成为巴基斯坦空军主要二线战斗机的JF-17,“在可以预见的未来”仍将采用俄制RD-93发动机,而不是北京方面提议的一款中国制造的发动机。Pieter Wezeman of Sipri says Chinese military equipment is at a disadvantage for not having been used in conflict situations, unlike hardware from western suppliers which comes with a combat history. “The only place where Chinese equipment is known to have performed alongside equipment from other suppliers is Pakistan,” he notes.斯德哥尔国际和平研究所的彼得韦策曼(Pieter Wezeman)表示,中国军事装备的一个不利因素是,它们从未用于实战,而不像西方供应商提供的装备那样经受过实战考验。“巴基斯坦据信是中国的装备同其他供应商的装备搭配使用的唯一地方,”他指出。In the case of Pakistan’s use of its first armed drone, Mr Wezeman says it is important to remember that it was used against Taliban targets in a remote region along the Afghan border, and it was not challenged by enemy aircraft. “One has to be careful before one sees this as a breakthrough,” he adds.对于巴基斯坦首次利用武装无人机的战例,韦策曼表示,有必要记住的是,军方是在阿富汗边境的一个偏远地区使用无人机打击塔利班目标,没有敌机对抗。“人们在认为这是一个突破之前必须谨慎,”他补充道。Still, western defence officials say Beijing’s strategy of offering significantly lower prices and a virtual absence of political strings gives China a rising presence in international markets.话虽如此,西方防务官员们表示,北京方面的战略(提供显著较低的价格,基本上不附带任何政治条件)使中国在国际军火市场占有越来越大的地盘。 /201601/423009

BEIJING — Just about every June, on the anniversary of his company’s founding, Richard Liu dons a big motorcycle helmet and red uniform, hops on a three-wheeled electric bike and makes home deliveries for his e-commerce company JD.com.北京——几乎每年6月,在公司成立的周年纪念日上,刘强东都会戴上一顶大大的托车头盔,穿上红色的制,跳上一辆三轮电动车,为他的电子商务公司京东送货。It is in part a publicity stunt for Mr. Liu, the 41-year-old billionaire who is the company’s chairman and chief executive. But it is also a way to better understand the technical and logistical challenges facing JD, which is in a pitched battle for e-commerce supremacy in the world’s second-biggest economy after the ed States.这是京东董事局主席兼首席执行官、41岁的亿万富翁刘强东的公共宣传活动的部分内容。但是,通过这种方式,人们也能更好地了解京东在技术和物流方面所面临的挑战。目前,京东正在仅次于美国的世界第二大经济体中,激烈地争夺电商霸主的地位。Long overshadowed by its rival Alibaba, JD has emerged as China’s other online goliath by carving out its own distinct identity.长期笼罩在对手阿里巴巴阴影下的京东,也通过刻画自己的独特身份,成为了中国的另一个网络巨头。While Alibaba’s marketplace serves as a platform to connect buyers and sellers, JD buys goods from manufacturers and distributors and holds the inventory in its own warehouses, in a model that echoes Amazon’s. It then arranges for quick delivery of virtually everything from television sets and refrigerators to socks and T-shirts, using motorbikes that weave in and out of traffic in some of the country’s biggest cities.阿里巴巴的市场提供了一个连接买家和卖家的平台,京东则从制造商和分销商手中购买商品,把存货放在自己的仓库里,这种模式与亚马逊(Amazon)类似。然后,它会安排快速送货务,其配送的商品包罗万象,既有电视机、冰箱,也有袜子和T恤,送货的托车在中国大型城市的车流中进进出出。Like Amazon, JD has invested heavily in infrastructure, pumping more than .5 billion into building and leasing warehouses and order-fulfillment centers around China. But JD has gone even further, venturing into home delivery with its own fleet of trucks and more than 20,000 couriers, all in the hope of capturing what is projected to be a trillion Chinese e-commerce market by 2020.与亚马逊一样,京东也在基础设施方面投入了巨资,斥资逾15亿美元(约合94亿元人民币)在中国各地修建和租赁仓库与配送中心。但是,京东采取了更进一步的举措,甚至还在用自己的货车和20000余名快递员提供送货到家的务。这一切都是为了夺取中国的电商市场。到2020年,中国电商市场预计将达1万亿美元。JD, which is publicly traded in the ed States, is now China’s biggest direct-sales retailer, with 46 million active users and an estimated billion in revenue last year.已在美国上市的京东目前是中国最大的直销零售商,去年拥有4600万活跃用户和大约200亿美元收益。“This isn’t a business model for everyone, but they were smart to build it,” said Elinor Leung, a Hong Kong-based Internet analyst at CLSA, an investment bank. “Now, their traffic is exploding.”“这种商业模式并不适用于每个人,但他们去建立起这个模式是很明智的,”投资里昂券(CLSA)驻香港的网络分析师梁向奕(Elinor Leung)说。“现在,他们的流量正在飞速增长。”And yet this costly approach to building an online retailer has worried some analysts, who say that JD could be weighed down by its physical assets and mounting debt. Several analysts say the company won’t turn a profit before 2017. Competitors like Jack Ma, chairman of Alibaba, have even disparaged the company’s business model, calling it tragically flawed.然而,这种打造在线零售商的方式成本高昂,让一些分析人士颇为担心。这些人表示,京东可能会被它的有形资产和日益增加的债务拖累。几名分析人士说,公司在2017年前无法盈利。阿里巴巴董事局主席马云等竞争者都不认同京东的商业模式,称之存在可悲的缺陷。“It’s not that we are better,” Mr. Ma said in a recently published interview. “It’s an issue of direction. So, I tell my people: Definitely do not get involved with JD.com. Don’t come blaming us if you die one day.” He later apologized for his comments.“不是我比他强,”马云在近期发表的一次采访中说。“而是方向性的问题。所以,我在公司一再告诉大家,千万不要去碰京东。别到时候自己死了赖上我们。”他后来对自己的言论表示了道歉。Executives at JD, which is based in Beijing, insist they are building a company that will eventually have a commanding advantage in e-commerce, with strong customer service, speedy delivery and assurances that the products it ships are authentic, not counterfeit. Among the biggest challenges now, they say, is keeping up with an enormous volume of online orders, which have doubled in each of the last three years.京东总部设在北京,其高管坚持认为,他们正在建设的公司,最终将在电商行业获得压倒性优势,拥有强大的客户务,快速的运输,并且能保它运送的货物是真品,而非仿冒品。他们称,目前面临着许多重大挑战,其中之一就是应对数量巨大的网络订单。过去三年中的每一年,网络订单的数量都翻了一番。“If we wanted, we could be profitable right now,” said Shen Haoyu, chief executive of JD Mall, the company’s biggest division. “But our immediate goal is to grow our customer base.”“只要我们想,马上可以实现盈利,”公司最大部门京东商城的首席执行官沈皓瑜说。“但是我们的近期目标是扩大客户群。”JD is a product of its founder’s ambitions. The son of a cargo shipowner, Mr. Liu grew up in one of the poorest parts of east China’s Jiangsu Province, before arriving in Beijing to study sociology at Renmin University.京东是其创始人远大抱负的产物。刘强东是一个货运船主的儿子,在中国东部省份江苏省最贫穷的地区长大,后来在位于北京的中国人民大学修读社会学。During his spare time in college, he wrote software code and earned enough money to buy a small restaurant near campus. He says the restaurant failed after staff members embezzled large sums of money.大学期间,他利用业余时间写软件代码,用挣来的钱在学校附近开了一家小餐厅。他说,由于餐厅员工盗用了一大笔钱,餐厅最终倒闭。After college, Mr. Liu, whose Chinese name is Liu Qiangdong, worked briefly for a Japanese company before going into business for himself. He rented space at an electronics market in the city’s high-tech zone, called Zhongguancun, to sell software and electronics, including compact disc burners. Within a few years, he owned brick-and-mortar electronics shops in three cities.大学毕业后,刘强东在创业前曾在一家日企工作。他在北京的高科技区中关村的电子产品市场租了一个摊位卖软件、电子产品和光盘刻录机。几年之内,他就在三座城市拥有了实体电子商店。In 2004, when his stores began selling goods on the web, online shopping was just beginning to take shape in China, led by start-ups like Dangdang, Joyo and Alibaba’s Taobao site. JD, whose English name at the time was 360Buy.com, thrived on low prices and fast delivery, part of its motto today.2004年,当他的商店开始在网上销售商品时,由当当、卓越和阿里巴巴的淘宝网所领导的中国网络购物刚刚开始成形。当时英文名还叫做360Buy.com的京东,凭借低廉的价格和快速的送货获得了蓬勃发展,这两点在今天是京东的格言。With money running low in 2006, Mr. Liu sought million from a Hong Kong venture capital firm. The firm, Capital Today, put up million instead, for a large minority stake. The stake is now worth close to .4 billion, even after the firm sold some of its shares.2006年,由于资金不足,刘强东准备从一家香港风险投资公司获取200万美元(约合1250万元人民币)的资金。但这家投资公司——今日资本——提供了1000万美元,以获取少数股份。尽管该公司出售了一些股票,其股份价值现在仍接近24亿美元。The capital injection helped JD expand its product offering beyond electronics and develop new systems and software. The expansion, in turn, helped lure bigger investors, such as Tiger Global, the Russian billionaire Yuri Milner, Prince Alwaleed bin Talal of Saudi Arabia and the Waltons, the family behind Walmart Stores.这些资金帮助京东扩展了产品供应,在电子设备以外还提供其他产品,研发新的系统和软件。产品供应的扩展帮助京东吸引了更大的投资商,比如老虎环球(Tiger Global)、俄罗斯亿万富翁尤里·米尔纳(Yuri Milner)、沙特阿拉伯王子瓦利德·本·塔拉勒(Alwaleed bin Talal),以及沃尔玛超市(Wal-Mart Stores)背后的沃尔顿家族(Waltons)。“The first time I met him, I knew he was smart and trustworthy, and that he had a killer instinct,” said Kathy Xu, the partner who led the Capital Today investment.今日资本合伙人、总裁徐新说,“我一次见到他时,我知道他很聪明、可靠,他有一种好胜心。”Investors bought into Mr. Liu’s vision for a full-service online retailer.投资商相信刘强东对提供全面务的网络零售商的展望。At the time, China’s package delivery services were terrible. The country had new roads and bridges, but truck shipments were hampered by poor service, toll roads and other bottlenecks. With no Chinese equivalent of FedEx or UPS, packages often arrived late, in dented boxes.当时,中国的快递务非常糟糕。中国建造了新公路和新大桥,但卡车运输却因为糟糕的务,收费公路及其他瓶颈而受阻。中国没有类似联邦快递(FedEx)和UPS的快递务公司,包裹经常不能及时到达,而且还被压得变形。“Back then, 70 percent of our complaints were about deliveries, and everything was very slow,” Mr. Liu said during an interview at the company’s headquarters. “We realized logistics is related to user experience.”“当时,在我们收到的投诉中,70%是关于快递,每一个环节都很慢,”刘强东在公司总部接受采访时说。“我们意识到物流与用户体验有关。”So beginning in 2007, JD did something no other Chinese e-commerce company was willing to do then or since. It started building an integrated logistics network from scratch, promising to cater to customers from click to drop-off.因此从2007年开始,京东做了其他中国电子商务公司当时或以后都不愿做的事情。京东从零开始,建造综合物流网络,承诺为顾客提供从下单到送货的务。Today, the company boasts seven fulfillment centers and 118 warehouses in 39 cities. There are also 1,045 smaller pickup centers in about 500 cities. And since 2010, the company has pledged that most online orders placed before 11 at night will be delivered by 3 p.m. the next day.如今,京东拥有七个物流中心,在39个城市建立了118个仓库,还在大约500个城市设立了1045个自提点。自2010年以来,京东承诺大多数在晚上11点前提交的网络订单都将在第二天下午3点前送到。Morgan Stanley calls JD’s business model a combination of Amazon and UPS; other analysts say the company is beginning to look like Walmart, steeped in logistics and infrastructure and backed by a website.根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)称京东的商业模式是亚马逊和UPS的结合体;还有一些分析人士表示,该公司现在看起来有点像沃尔玛,致力于物流和基础设施,同时又有网站作撑。JD “has made it clear they will not only be a retailer but also an online supply chain and finance company,; said Lu Jianping, who teaches e-commerce at East China Normal University in Shanghai. “Retail is not profitable but it offers trading volume and cash flow. In the future, the main profits will come from finance and the supply chain.;京东“已经表明,他们不仅仅是零售商,还会是网络供应链、金融公司”,上海华东师范大学电子商务教师陆建平说。“做零售没有利润,但能产生交易量和现金流。未来,主要的利润来自金融及供应链业务。”By following its own path, JD has sought to make online shopping easier for China’s growing consumer class, promising authentic goods, delivered on time, for little or no delivery fee — and with a receipt, something hard to come by in a country where tax evasion is rampant.京东开辟了自己的道路,寻求为中国快速增加的消费阶层提供便利的网络购物务,承诺提供可靠商品,准时送货,只收取少量运费或免费,并提供发票。在这个逃税行为猖獗的国家,很难获得发票。Today, traffic to its website is exploding and the company is filling more than two million orders a day. No other direct sales retailer in the world has seen its revenue grow as quickly as JD, not even Amazon.如今,公司网站流量爆增,每天发送的订单超过200多万份。在这个世界上,没有哪家直销零售商的收益增长速度赶得上京东,包括亚马逊。American Internet start-ups have struggled in China. Amazon made its big foray into China in 2004, when it paid million to acquire Joyo.com, then one of China’s biggest e-commerce start-ups. A decade later, Amazon’s China operation has less than 2 percent of the online shopping market, according to iResearch Consulting.美国网络初创公司在中国举步维艰。亚马逊于2004年大举进入中国市场,当时该公司耗资7500万美元收购了卓越网——当时中国最大的电子商务初创公司。艾瑞咨询集团(iResearch Consulting Group)提供的数据显示,10年之后,亚马逊中国的业务在网络购物市场中所占的份额不到2%。And though Alibaba is better known in the ed States, Mr. Liu, JD’s biggest shareholder, is finding a warm reception. He led the company’s public stock offering on the Nasdaq early last year, which raised .78 billion.阿里巴巴在美国的名气比京东大,但京东最大股东刘强东正受到热烈欢迎。去年早些时候,刘强东带领公司在纳斯达克挂牌上市,筹集到17.8亿美元。Around the same time, he also struck a deal with China’s social media and mobile gaming giant Tencent, which allows JD to tap into Tencent’s huge user base. Tencent now owns about 20 percent of JD.刘强东在同一时间还与中国社交媒体、移动游戏巨头腾讯达成协议,让京东可以利用腾讯巨大的用户群。腾讯现在持有京东20%的股份。Mr. Liu is also pushing JD into online groceries and finance, and lending to his vendors the way Alibaba does. But unlike Alibaba and Amazon, he says he has little interest in developing film or entertainment divisions.刘强东还将带领京东涉足网购生鲜及金融方面的业务,像阿里巴巴一样为商家提供贷款。但与阿里巴巴、亚马逊不同,刘强东称他对开设电影或部门没有多大兴趣。“We don’t want to produce films or TV shows, but finance, yes,” Mr. Liu said, before returning to his thoughts on infrastructure. “And every few years we’ll invest in new warehouses. We need some temperature-controlled warehouses.”“我们不想制作电影或电视节目,但愿意涉足金融领域,”在回到有关基础设施的谈话前,刘强东说。“我们每隔几年就会投资建设新仓库。我们需要一些温控仓库。” /201501/357193

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