时间:2018年06月24日 20:26:37

Cell phones have become ubiquitous even in the world’s poorest places. Now, researchers are using data collected by the devices to address third-world problems, according to a report provided exclusively to Fortune.甚至在世界上最贫穷的地方,手机也已经变得无处不在。《财富》杂志(Fortune)独家获得的一份报告披露,研究人员正在利用这些设备收集的数据来解决第三世界的问题。The report, produced by the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation in conjunction with strategy consulting firm Cartesian, argues that analyzing mobile data has the potential to improve the lives of the poor in many ways—from expanding access to banking services to tracking the sp of infectious diseases.这份由比尔和梅琳达o盖茨基金会(Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation)与战略咨询机构笛卡儿公司(Cartesian)合作推出的报告称,从扩大务的覆盖面到跟踪传染病的传播,分析移动数据有望从多个层面改善穷困人口的生活。Nirant Gupta, an author of the report, says research from Harvard and other large universities prompted the Gates Foundation to further analyze cell phone data in developing countries so that the findings could move from research to implementation.报告执笔人尼朗特o古普塔表示,哈佛大学(Harvard University)和其他大学的研究促使盖茨基金会进一步分析了发展中国家的手机数据,以便相关发现能够从研究转入实施阶段。“As we talked to researchers, we thought they were doing really interesting and exciting things,” he says.他说:“我们跟研究人员进行了深入交谈,我们认为他们正在从事的研究非常有趣,令人兴奋。”Studying 10 developing countries across sub-Saharan African and Asia, the researchers found that many residents view cellular phones as a necessity, even cutting back on food purchases to pay their phone bills. Although more than 60% of people in the countries studied live on less than per day, the majority of people there own cell phones. In Nigeria and Kenya, for example, 67% of adults own cell phones, while at least 58% do in India, Indonesia and Botswana. Even among people earning a day or less, more than half own mobile phones in Botswana, Kenya and Nigeria.研究人员研究了撒哈拉以南非洲和亚洲的10个发展中国家,发现许多居民都把手机看成是生活必需品,为了付电话费,宁愿节衣缩食。这些国家有超过60%的人口每天的生活费用不足2美元,但大多数人都拥有一部手机。例如,在尼日利亚和肯尼亚,67%的成年人拥有手机。在印度、印度尼西亚和茨瓦纳,至少58%的成年人拥有手机。茨瓦纳、肯尼亚和尼日利亚的许多人每天只能挣1美元,甚至更少,但其中超过一半人拥有一部手机。With the influx of new data, the report suggests new applications for it, such as creating better disaster relief programs. After the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, for example, several universities looked at data from cell phone towers and SIM cards to see where residents went after the quake hit. Instead of going to the closest “safe” zone, many survivors chose to go to locations where they had traveled to before.随着新数据的不断涌入,这份报告建议为这些数据开拓新用途,比如打造更好的灾难救济方案。例如,2010年海地大地震爆发后,几所大学通过观察手机基站和SIM卡的数据,来搜寻居民在地震发生后的踪迹。许多幸存者并没有去最近的“安全”地带,而是奔赴他们以前去过的地点。Jake Kendall, another author of the report, said the data could also be used in tracking diseases, for instance. By watching the mobility patterns of cell phone users, researchers can better understand how diseases like malaria sp and aim relief efforts at specific areas.报告的另一位作者杰克o肯德尔表示,这些数据也可以用来追踪疾病。通过观测手机用户的移动模式,研究人员可以更好地理解疟疾等疾病的蔓延方式,从而有针对性地在特定区域展开救援工作。Of course, mobile data collection raises issues of privacy. The report’s authors suggest that phone companies can scrub data of any personally identifiable information before releasing it to researchers.采集移动数据当然会引发隐私问题。这份报告的作者建议手机运营商删除所有可识别具体个人的信息,然后再把数据传送给研究人员。The data has endless potential to improve conditions in the developing world, far beyond the ways outlined in the report, the authors say. “The real opportunity is to take these tools and apply them more broadly. That would be where you’d make a larger impact,” says Ed Naef, vice president of strategy consulting for Cartesian, and one of the report’s lead authors.作者表示,手机数据具有改善发展中国家生存条件的无穷潜力,用途远远超出这份报告所列举的方式。笛卡尔公司战略咨询事务副总裁、这份报告的主要作者之一埃德o纳伊夫说:“真正的机会在于利用这些工具,更广泛地加以应用,这样就会带来更大的影响。”While the Gates Foundation has not yet announced projects that will implement the findings of the study, Gupta says that projects are in the works, including potential partnerships with the ed Nations Global Pulse, a U.N. initiative to use Big Data for humanitarian purposes.虽然盖茨基金会还没有宣布什么项目来利用这项研究得出的发现,但古普塔表示,相关项目正处于计划阶段,而联合国全球脉动(ed Nations Global Pulse)是潜在合作伙伴之一。后者是联合国发起的一个项目,旨在应用大数据来解决人道主义问题。 /201407/310996

The Ebola outbreak is threatening “state failure” in west Africa, the World Health Organisation warned, as the US said it needed to overhaul its management of the virus following the infection of an American nurse.世界卫生组织(WHO)警告说,埃拉(Ebola)病毒的蔓延或将导致西非“政府瘫痪”。与此同时,美国也表示,在一名美国护士感染埃拉病毒后,该国需要彻底整顿对病毒的管控流程。“I have never seen a health event threaten the very survival of societies and governments in aly very poor countries,”#8200;Margaret Chan, director-general of the WHO, said in a statement on Monday. “I have never seen an infectious disease contribute so strongly to potential state failure.”周一,WHO总干事陈冯富珍(Margaret Chan)在一份声明中表示:“我从未见过像埃拉这样,在一个本已十分贫穷的国家,一次健康卫生事件就能威胁到社区和政府存续的情况。我也从未见过一种传染病会如此强烈地增加政府瘫痪的可能性。”The US, meanwhile, vowed to reform its management of Ebola infections after procedures it had previously described as rigorous failed to prevent a healthcare worker from contracting the virus in Texas last week.与此同时,美国也发誓要改革对埃拉病毒感染的管控,原因是上周在德克萨斯,该国自称十分严格的管控流程未能阻止一名医护人员接触到这种病毒。And enhanced screening for Ebola will begin at Britain’s biggest airport on Tuesday as prime minister David Cameron insisted “vigorous steps” were being taken to prevent the deadly virus reaching the UK.英国最大机场周二将启动对埃拉病毒的强化审查机制。与此同时,英国首相戴维#8226;卡梅伦(David Cameron)坚称,英国已采取了“有力措施”,阻止这种致命病毒进入英国。Health secretary Jeremy Hunt said checks would take place at Heathrow’s Terminal 1 before they are expanded to cover Gatwick airport outside London and Eurostar rail terminals linking the UK to the continent by the end of next week.英国卫生大臣杰里米#8226;亨特(Jeremy Hunt)表示,开始将从希斯罗机场(Heathrow Airport)1号航站楼查起。随后,在下周结束之前检查范围会扩大到伦敦之外的盖特威克(Gatwick)机场,以及连接英国与欧洲的欧洲之星(Eurastar)铁路的终点站。Thomas Frieden, head of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said at a press conference on Monday: “We have to rethink how we address Ebola infection control, because even a single infection is unacceptable.”美国疾病控制预防中心(US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)主任托马斯#8226;弗里登(Thomas Frieden)周一在一个记者招待会上表示:“对于我们如何处理埃拉病毒感染事件的管控问题,我们必须予以反思。因为,就算只有一起感染案例,我们也无法接受。”He said CDC was implementing immediate steps to change the way the infected nurse in Dallas was cared for and was examining more profound long-term changes. He also vowed to “double down” on the training given to US hospitals, saying: “Every hospital in this country needs to think about the possibility of Ebola.”他说,该中心正在采取应急措施,调整照看达拉斯受感染护士的方式,并且在考察更为深入的长期性改革举措。此外,他还发誓要“大力加强”对美国医院的培训工作,他表示:“美国每家医院都必须考虑到遇到埃拉病毒患者的可能性。”The nurse, who was named as Nina Pham by US media on Monday, contracted the virus while caring for Thomas Eric Duncan, who died last week after being infected in Liberia before travelling to the US.据美国媒体周一报道,这位被感染的护士名叫尼娜#8226;彭(Nina Pham)。她是在照看托马斯#8226;埃里克#8226;邓肯(Thomas Eric Duncan)时接触到埃拉病毒的。邓肯在进入美国之前在利比里亚感染了埃拉病毒,已在上周去世。Dr Frieden said the new steps included monitoring staff as they remove the protective clothing worn while treating an infected patient, a process that carries its own risks.弗里登表示,新的举措包括对员工脱去防护的过程加强监控,这种防护是员工照看受感染病患时所穿,脱去该防护的过程也有一定受感染风险。CDC was also exploring alternative types of protective equipment and the possible use of virus-killing chemicals to spray people emerging from Ebola containment units, he said.他说,疾控中心还在探索防护设备的替代类型,并有可能对从埃拉隔离区出来的人们采取喷淋杀毒化学药品的措施。At New York’s John F. Kennedy airport the authorities continued to screen air travellers arriving from Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea on Monday. The CDC said so far 91 people had been identified since Saturday and none had a fever or reported exposure to Ebola.周一,在纽约肯尼迪机场(JFK Airport),当局仍在继续检查来自利比里亚、塞拉利昂和几内亚的游客。疾控中心表示,自周六以来,该中心已发现了91名此类旅客,无人存在发烧症状,也没有这些人曾暴露在埃拉病毒之下的报告。Dr Frieden said: “The care of Ebola is hard. We’re working to make it safer and easier.” He said CDC had still not identified how the infected nurse, who wore protective clothing while caring for Mr Duncan, had contracted the virus.弗里登表示:“对埃拉病人的护理工作十分困难,我们正在努力使这一过程变得更加安全方便。”他说,疾控中心仍未确认那位受感染护士是如何接触到这种病毒的,因为她在护理邓肯时已穿上了防护。The death toll from Ebola in west Africa has topped 4,000.目前,在非洲西部地区,埃拉病毒的致死人数已高达4000人。Ms Chan, the WHO chief, said in a statement delivered on her behalf in the Philippines that the “outbreak spotlights the dangers of the world’s growing social and economic inequalities. The rich get the best care. The poor are left to die.”在一份代表她在菲律宾发出的声明中,WHO总干事陈冯富珍表示,“埃拉病毒的蔓延凸显出全球社会和经济不平等日益加剧的风险。富人能得到最好的照看,而穷人则只能等待死亡。”She added: “Decades of neglect of fundamental health systems and services mean that a shock, like an extreme weather event in a changing climate, armed conflict, or a disease run wild, can bring a fragile country to its knees.”她还补充说:“数十年忽视基本医疗体系和务的建设,使得一次冲击就足以让一个脆弱的国家崩溃。这种冲击可能是气候变化大环境下的极端天气事件,可能是武装冲突,也可能是失控的疫情。” /201410/335779

A six-year-old girl who was left at a Chinese bath house by her grandfather as a deposit after he claimed he forgot his wallet is still living there a month on as he failed to collect her.一名6岁女孩被爷爷抵押在公共澡堂里,因为他洗澡时忘记带钱包了,可是一个月过去了,她还没被领走。The girl, called Siyao, turned up at thefacility in the city of Kunming in south westernChina#39;s Yunnan province after her grandfather announced he wanted a good wash in a warm bath and a relaxing massage afterwards.事发昆明市,这位爷爷说他想洗个澡,再。But when he came to pay, staff say hesuddenly announced that he had forgotten his money and would need to go home tocollect it.但是当付账时,员工称他突然说自己忘记带钱了,需要回家拿。Bath manager Mee Wang, 40, explained: #39;He told the reception that would leave his granddaughter Siyao, behind as proof that he intended to return, and then left.#39;澡堂经理说:“他想将自己的孙女抵押,以此明他会回来付钱。”But by the end of the day staff found that the grandfather had still not returned, and they were left looking after the girl who has now been living there for more than a month.可天黑了,也不见他回来,所以他们不得不照顾这个小女孩,她已经住在那里一个多月了。Siyao has now made good friends with the staff at the bath house, who have arranged a comfortable bed for her to sleepin overnight.这名小女孩现在和澡堂的员工成了好朋友,还给她安排了一个舒的床给她睡。When the centre is closed they leave a TV switched on so she doesn#39;t feel lonely or scared.澡堂关门时,还会给她开一个电视,这样她就不会觉得孤单或者害怕。Staff also bring in food to help feed the six-year-old and have provided her with changes in clothing.员工还给这个小女孩带来了食物,以及帮她换洗衣。She uses the facilities at the bath house to wash and keep herself clean.她利用澡堂里的设备洗澡并保持干净。Siyao#39;s story was also published in thelocal media with an appeal for her grandfather to come forward to collect her.她的故事还被发表在了当地媒体上,呼吁他的爷爷来将她领走。However, he has failed to turn up meaning the girl still remains in the care of the staff, even though social services have been urged to intervene.然而,他没有出现,这意味着这名小女孩依然在员工们的照料之下,虽然人们敦促社会福利机构介入。Bath houses are popular in Chinese cities and are used by residents who don#39;t have central heating or running water at home.澡堂流行于中国城市,家中没有暖气或者自来水的居民会去澡堂洗澡。At the centres people can take a bath, getclean, relax and enjoy a foot or body massage.在澡堂里,人们可以洗澡,放松,享受足底或者全身。 /201502/358757

The worst password of 2013 is #39;123456#39; according to new research.根据一项最新调查显示,2013年度最差劲密码非“123456”莫属了。The 25 most common passwords have been released by Splashdata which makes password management applications.密码管理应用设计商Splashdata发布了一份“25个最常见密码” 榜单。;password; had held the top spot in the rankings since the annual list began to be compiled. In 2013 it slipped to number two on the list.自这份年度榜单编制之初,“password”就占据了“最常用密码”的榜首位置。而在2013年榜单中,“password” 排名下滑到了第二位。The swap is due largely to the major security breach at software company Adobe in October which affected tens of millions of users.这个变化很大一部分原因是因为去年十月软件巨头Adobe公司发生了重大安全漏洞,致使数百万用户遭受影响。Splashdata#39;s list shows that many people use easily guessable passwords. Some other passwords in the Top Ten include ;qwerty,; ;abc123,; ;111111,; and ;iloveyou.;Splashdata发布的榜单显示,很多人都使用很容易让人猜中的密码。其他几个排名前十的“最差劲密码”还包括“qwerty”、“abc123”、“111111”和“iloveyou”。Morgan Slain, CEO of SplashData said: ;Seeing passwords like #39;adobe123#39; and #39;photoshop#39; on this list offers a good reminder not to base your password on the name of the website or application you are accessing.SplashData的首席执行官根·斯兰说:“当你看到‘最差劲密码’榜单上出现‘adobe123’或者‘photoshop’,你就该意识到,在你正在使用的网站或应用上,不该用它本身的名字作为密码。”;Another interesting aspect of this year#39;s list is that more short numerical passwords showed up even though websites are starting to enforce stronger password policies.;“今年榜单有趣的地方之一是,尽管网站都开始实行更严的密码设定政策,位数少的密码仍出现在今年的榜单上。”The data was released to encourage the adoption of stronger passwords. Mr Slain added:;As always, we hope that with more publicity about how risky it is to use weak passwords, more people will start taking simple steps to protect themselves by using stronger passwords and using different passwords for different websites.;SplashData发布这份榜单是为了鼓励大家使用复杂的密码。根·斯兰还说道:“和往常一样,我们还是希望通过了解使用简单密码存在很大风险,大家能设立比较严谨的密码来保护自己,并在不同的网站上使用不同的密码。”The company advises consumers or businesses using any of the passwords on the list to change them immediately. Splashdata warned that even passwords with common substitutions like ;dr4mat1c; can be vulnerable to attackers#39; increasingly sophisticated technology.SplashData公司建议,使用榜单上出现的密码的用户和公司赶快修改自己的密码。SplashData公司警告称,用数字代替字母的常见密码,像“dr4mat1c”,也很容易遭到破解,因为现在密码入侵者的科技手段也越来越高端了。They say that it is especially risky to use the same password for entertainment sites as for email and social networking accounts.SplashData公司称,在网站上使用和邮箱及社交网站相同的密码尤其不安全。Most common passwords of 2013:2013年最常用密码:1. 1234562. password3. 123456784. qwerty5. abc1236. 1234567897. 1111118. 12345679. iloveyou10. adobe12311. 12312312. admin13. 123456789014. letmein15. photoshop16. 123417. monkey18. shadow19. sunshine20. 1234521. password122. princess23. azerty24. trustno125. 000000 /201401/274345

文章编辑: 度排名三甲医院