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Business商业Fighter jets战斗机Bomb bays to Delhi弹舱来到德里India favours Frances Dassault印度爱上了法国达索;WEVE been waiting for this day for 30 years,; said Nicolas Sarkozy, Frances president,;我们为这一天已经等待了30年;,法国总统尼古拉萨科奇说。on the news this week that India had gone into exclusive negotiations with Dassault Aviation, a French firm, to buy 126 of its Rafale warplanes for billion-20 billion.本周,印度和法国达索航空就印度斥资150~200亿美元购买126架其生产的;阵风;战斗机进入实质性的协商阶段。France has not sold a single Rafale overseas, and until this week the planes future looked iffy.这是法国第一次为;阵风;找到海外买家,并且直到本周;阵风;的将来看起来都是扑朔迷离的。Shares in Dassault Aviation soared by 18.5%.达索航空的股票应声大涨了18.5%。The loser, ironically, was the Rafales cousin, the Eurofighter Typhoon, built by a consortium led by EADS, Europes defence and aerospace champion, which is jointly controlled by Germany and France.讽刺的是,竞争失败的是;阵风;的堂兄弟——欧洲战机公司的;台风;战机,;台风;是由欧洲宇航防务集团(EADS)领导多家企业联合制造的,该战机由德国和法国联合控制。EADS itself owns a 46% stake in Dassault, a legacy of earlier French government meddling, so its own shares inched up on the news.EADS持有达索46%的股份,这是早期法国政府干预达索遗留下来的东西,因此EADS的股票也随着印度购买;阵风;的新闻上涨了一些。Dassault won its exclusive-bidder status by offering the lower price.达索通过低价投标赢得合同。Both European jets had satisfied the technical requirements of the Indian Air Force, which wants zippier planes to guard against Chinas Chengdu J-10 combat aircraft and Pakistans ageing American F-16s.两种欧洲的战机都能满足印度空军的技术需求,他们需要反应速度快,能对抗中国成飞的歼-10和巴基斯坦过时的美制F-16s。In tests over the Himalayas and the desert, India had eliminated the F-16 and F/A-18, the Russian MiG-35 and Swedish JAS 39 Gripen from the process during -10.-2010期间,印度在喜马拉雅山脉和拉贾斯坦邦的沙漠进行了试飞测试,而后放弃了F-16,F/A-18,俄制米格-35和瑞典制JAS 39鹰狮战机。The capabilities of both the Rafale and the Eurofighter were on display during the Libyan war.;阵风;和;台风;的能力都已经在利比亚战争中显示过了。The Typhoon is the superior air-to-air interceptor.;台风;在空对空的截击方面更有优势。The Rafale switches more easily into a ground-attack mode.;阵风;则在对地攻击模式中更胜一筹。After seeing the Rafale rejected repeatedly over the past decade, by the Netherlands, South Korea, Singapore, Morocco, the ed Arab Emirates and Switzerland, the French were desperate to win a contract.在过去的十年中,;阵风;不停的被多个国家所鄙视,包括荷兰、南韩、新加坡、洛哥、阿联酋和瑞士,法国人已经对;阵风;能获得合同不报希望。The plane was becoming a costly embarrassment, especially for Mr Sarkozy, who has long promised a sale to Brazil but has nothing to show for his efforts.这种战机已经进了一个昂贵的尴尬境地,特别是对萨科奇来说,他很早就承诺会把这种战机推销给巴西,不过到现在也没有兑现。Some even wondered if the Rafale could survive with France as its only customer.有些人甚至怀疑只有法国这一个客户的;阵风;能否存活下去。Now Dassault must seal the contract with India in a series of detailed negotiations over technology transfer and other conditions.现在达索必须和印度协商敲定合同的一系列细节,包括技术转让和其他的条件。India is known for switching to other bidders before finally signing a contract.众所周知,印度在最后签合同之前都有可能转而选择其他的投标人。;The Indians will now squeeze the French hard,; says an executive on the Typhoon side.;印度将和法国人紧紧的联系在一起;,一位;台风;战机的高管说。That said, India has used Dassaults Mirage jets for many years, and last year signed a .4 billion deal with Dassault,印度已经使用达索的;幻影;战机很多年了,去年还和达索、泰雷兹(Thales)和欧洲导弹制造商(MBDA)签订了24亿美元的合同来升级其法国战机。Thales and MBDA, two other French defence firms, to upgrade its French planes.泰雷兹和MBDA是法国的两家国防供应商。For the Eurofighter consortium the Indian deal is crucial too.对于欧洲战机联盟,印度这笔交易也是非常关键的。David Cameron, Britains prime minister, said this week that the Typhoon is ;far better; than the Rafale.英国首相大卫 卡梅伦本周说;台风;比;阵风;好多了。Sales of the Typhoon, which went into service in 2004, have disappointed.;台风;从2004年开始销售,但情况一直是令人失望的。The Eurofighter member governments (Germany, Britain, Italy and Spain) have all ordered planes, but only Austria and Saudi Arabia have bought them from outside the group.欧洲战机联盟成员包括德国、英国、意大利和西班牙,这些政府都下单买过;台风;,但是在联盟外,;台风;只卖给了奥地利和沙特阿拉伯这两个国家。Eurofighter may now lower its price to rejoin the bidding for Indias contract.欧洲战机联盟现在可能会降低报价,希望重新加入和印度的谈判。It may also offer India the carrot of equal status as a partner in the programme, alongside the four European nations.四个欧盟国家一起合作,并且联盟成为这次交易的伙伴,也许能引导印度进行公平交易。Eurofighter says it will be helped by what is turning out to be a transparent procurement process.欧洲战机联盟说这有助于交易过程更加透明。Whereas previous Indian arms deals have been dogged by accusations of corruption, this one has so far been exemplary, says an executive involved.此前印度的军火交易总是伴随着贪污的指控,这次这样做迄今为止看来都是很规范的,一位参与其中的高管说到。Having opted out of the Eurofighter project in 1985, Frances determination to go it alone in defence matters has led to the spectacle of two expensive European combat planes competing for the same big contract.在1985年选择离开欧洲战机联盟项目后,法国决定在国防上独立,这导致了两种昂贵的欧洲战机会为了同一个大合同而竞争的奇怪景象。;Europe should not have two jets fighting each other,; says Zafar Khan, a defence-industry analyst at Societe Generale, a French bank. The next generation of European fighter jets, he says, should be a more co-ordinated effort.;欧盟应该有两种战斗机来互相牵制;,一位来自法国兴业的国防工业分析师Zafar Khan说,;下一代的欧洲战机应该能更加协调的朝一个方向努力;。 /201211/209616。

  • Most people searching for buried treasure would be looking for silver and gold, ancient coins or rare artwork. 大多数人寻找埋葬的宝藏多数是为了金银,古币或者稀有艺术品。But scientists studying the extinct giant moa bird and its environment are looking for a different kind of artifact. Poop.但是科学家研究灭绝的巨型亚恐鸟及其生存环境,是为了寻找一件特别的工艺品。粪便。Thats right. A treasure trove of information can be found in fossilized feces, commonly called coprolites. The Giant Moa of New Zealand is a great species to study because they stood about nine feet high, weighed close to five-hundred pounds and some of their feces were over six inches in length.对。在化石粪便(通常称之为粪化石)中能发现海量的信息。巨型亚恐鸟生长在新西兰,这类物种是极好的研究对象,因为它们高达9英寸,体重将近500镑,它们的粪便有时也能长达6英尺多。Now, thats a big piece of treasure. There were once ten species of moa birds in New Zealand, but they were hunted to extinction when Polynesians moved to the island in the 1500s. They were flightless birds, similar to ostriches and emus. Scientists assumed they were herbivores, eating a diet of plants and seeds. But it wasnt until they began studying moa coprolites that they discovered what the birds actually ate and how they affected their environment.如今,这种粪便是巨大的宝藏。在新西兰曾有十种亚恐鸟,但是在十六世纪波里尼西亚人入岛后就被捕食殆尽。它们类似于鸵鸟和鸸鹋,不会飞。科学家认为它们是食草动物,以植物和种子为食。但直到开始研究亚恐鸟的粪化石后,他们才发现这类鸟真正的食物是什么,以及它们如何影响身边的环境。Scientists expected a bird as large as the moa would eat shrub and tree parts. Moa droppings told a different story. Moas grazed mostly on tiny herbs no more than a foot high. Not only that, many of those herbs are rare or threatened today. Scientists think this is because while the moa ate the plants, it also swallowed seeds whole. Those seeds passed through the digestive tract and were scattered across the countryside to find new places to grow.科学家们认为像亚恐鸟这种体积的鸟类应该会吃灌木丛和树叶。亚恐鸟粪便另有故事。亚恐鸟主要咀嚼细碎的不过一足高的草本植物。不仅如此,其中许多草本植物很稀有,甚至濒临灭绝。科学家们认为这是因为亚恐鸟在食用植物的时候,同时吞下所有的种子。这些种子排出消化道后播撒在乡村各地,然后在新的地方成长。Moa poop has revealed important clues about the moa and its environment. Now, scientists hope to use what theyve learned from the moa to make predictions about our own changing world.亚恐鸟粪便泄露了重要的关于亚恐鸟及其生存环境的线索,如今科学家们希望利用已知的情况来预测不断变化的人类世界。原文译文属!201208/196411。
  • Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;Asia and the West;Never the twain东西方;“欢喜冤家”The intellectual roots of Asian anti-Westernism亚洲知识分子反西化的学术根源From the Ruins of Empire: The Revolt Against the West and the Remaking of Asia. By Pankaj Mishra.源自帝国的废墟: 反抗西方,亚洲崛起。Pankaj Mishra著。 Rarely has the prestige of the West fallen lower in Asian eyes. Seemingly endless wars and the attendant abuses, financial crisis and economic malaise have made Europe and America look less like models to aspire to than dire examples to be shunned. In response, Asian elites are searching their own cultures and intellectual histories for inspiration.以前,在亚洲人眼中,西方似乎得神庇护,很少落后于亚洲。不过,似乎没完没了的战争和随之而来的虐待、金融危机和经济瘟疫使欧洲和美国不再是亚洲人心中值得学习的榜样,却成为人们唯恐避之不及的悲惨对象。与之相照应的是,亚洲精英们正在本国文化和思想史中寻找灵感。As Pankaj Mishra, a prolific Indian writer, shows in this subtle, erudite and entertaining account of Asian intellectuals’ responses to the West, much the same was true over a century ago. He defines Asia broadly, as bordering with Europe at the Aegean Sea and Africa at the River Nile. A century ago, what he calls “an irreversible process of intellectual…decolonisation” was under way across this huge region. For Mr Mishra, and many Asians, the 20th century’s central events were the “intellectual and political awakening of Asia and its emergence from the ruins of both Asian and European empires”. China and India have shaken off foreign predators and become global powers. Japan has risen, fallen and risen again. It is commonplace to describe the current century as Asia’s.印度高产作家潘卡旭以精细、学和有趣的文笔描绘出亚洲知识分子对西方的反应,他们的反应与一个多世纪前的人们的反应差不多。他把亚洲笼统地定义为一个在爱琴海区域与欧洲接壤、在尼罗河与非洲接壤的地区。据他所说,一个世纪以前,“一场不可逆转的思想非殖民化的过程”正在这一辽阔地区如火如荼地开展。对米希尔先生和很多亚洲人来说,20世纪的这一主要运动其实是“亚洲人的知识和政治上的觉醒,以及亚洲各国在亚洲强国和欧洲帝国殖民统治的废墟中崛起”。中国和印度都摆脱了外国列强的统治,并位于世界强国之列。日本则是强盛、倒下、又再次崛起。如今,二十一世纪被描绘成亚洲时代的这一说法是家喻户晓。Mr Mishra tells the story of this resurgence through the lives of a number of pivotal figures, as they grappled with the dilemma of how to replicate the West’s power while retaining their Asian “essence”. He pays most attention to two, both little known in the West. One, Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, was like most of them “neither an unthinking Westerniser, nor a devout traditionalist”. Despite his name, and despite a tomb in Kabul restored at America’s expense, al-Afghani was born in Persia in 1838. An itinerant Islamist activist, he also spent time in Egypt, India, Turkey and Russia, railing against the feebleness and injustices of Oriental despotisms and the immorality of Western imperialism, and trying to forge a Pan-Islamic movement. He had the ear of sultans and shahs.通过再现历史风云人物的生活,米什拉讲述了国家复兴的故事,但这些风云人物为在确保亚洲“核心”的同时,如何复制西方强国的繁荣而进退两难、烦恼不已。对西方世界完全陌生的两个人,他在笔墨间却倾注了很多关心。一位是哲马鲁丁#8226;阿富汗尼,就像大多数的历史人物一样“并非不加思考的照搬西方者,也非食古不化的传统者”。尽管他的姓名很奇怪,美国人修整了喀布尔(阿富汗的首都)的坟墓,1838年,阿富汗尼出生在波斯(西南亚国家,现称伊朗)。作为一名行走中的伊斯兰积极分子,他在埃及、印度、土耳其和俄国都呆过,他抱怨东方独裁统治的脆弱和不公,也责怪西方帝国主义的不道德,甚至试图开展泛伊斯兰教运动。他有苏丹(某些伊斯兰国家统治者的称号)和伊朗国王的耳目。The other main character is Liang Qichao, a leading Chinese intellectual in the twilight of the last imperial dynasty, the Qing, and the chaotic early years after it fell in 1911. Steeped in the old Confucian traditions and aghast at the weak new republic, he came to the conclusion that “the Chinese people must for now accept authoritarian rule; they cannot enjoy freedom”. Writing in 1903, however, he saw this as a temporary phenomenon. He would have been surprised to find China’s rulers today arguing much the same.另一个主人公是梁启超,中国最后一个封建王朝——清朝的一个杰出知识分子,他在晚清时期和清王朝1911年被推翻后,混乱不堪的最初几年里都有很大影响。他深受传统儒家思想的毒害,却又被脆弱的新民主共和国吓呆了,所以得出一个结论:“从现在起,中国人必须接受帝制统治的现实,他们享受不了自由”。这句话写于1903年,他把民国时期的存在视为暂时现象。如果看到现在的中国,他可能惊讶地发现当今的统治者也在抱怨同样的问题。Two other developments would also have surprised these men. The first is how disastrously some of the syntheses of West and East worked out: from Mao’s and Pol Pot’s millenarian communism, to al-Qaeda’s brand of Islamist fundamentalism and Japan’s replication of the worst traits of Western imperialism.其它两个发展也可能吓着这样的人。第一个是西方和东方的一些结合体造成的灾难性影响:从毛泽东时代和Pol Pot’s的千年共产主义,到打着伊斯兰原教主义旗号的基地组织和日本复制西方帝国主义的陋习。Japan’s later aggression helps explain the other surprise: that in many ways the links between Asian thinkers look more tenuous now than they did a century ago. Then, men such as Liang, or Rabindranath Tagore (pictured) from Bengal, would travel to Tokyo. They would dream of a pan-Asian response to the West, inspired by Japan’s example. China is now the coming Asian power, but it is not an intellectual hub of pan-Asianism, either in Communist orthodoxy or in efforts to revive Confucianism. And the Islam of al-Afghani’s ideological heirs has made little headway in non-Muslim countries.之后日本侵略各国的事实帮助解释了另一件奇事:从很多方面看来,现在亚洲思想家间联系比千年前的思想家们的联络都苍白无力。那时,像梁启超这样的人,或者来自孟加拉的Rabindranath Tagore(如照片),会去日本旅行。受日本的启发,他们会梦想着不惧美国,泛亚主义。中国现在是崛起中的亚洲强国,但它却不是亚洲主义——正统共产主义或努力复活儒家思想——的知识分子聚集地。而阿富汗尼的意识形态的伊斯兰教继承者在非穆斯林国家也几乎没有取得进步。There is one contemporary Asian phenomenon that, Mr Mishra notes, would seem far less surprising to the author’s subjects than to many present-day Westerners. That is the depth of anti-Western feeling. Millions, he writes, “derive profound gratification from the prospect of humiliating their former masters and overlords.” That prospect, however, masks what Mr Mishra concedes is an “immense intellectual failure”, because “no convincingly universalist response exists today to Western ideas of politics and economy”.米什拉先生指出,当今亚洲的一个现象是,似乎亚洲知识分子对作者举出的人物的关注程度远不如当今的很多西方人。惊讶,这是很多反西的亚洲人内心的感受。相反,他写道,数百万的人“从羞辱自己祖先和君主的过程获得极大的满足感。”然而,米什拉先生得出结论,这一前景是“知识分子最大的失败”,因为“因为现今,对西方思想家的政治和经济的见解,亚洲人并没有令人信的、普遍接受的回应存在。”The ways of the West may not be working. Yet the alarming truth, Mr Mishra concludes, is that the East is on course to make many of the same mistakes that the West has made in its time.西方的方法也不一定好用。米什拉先生总结说,值得警醒的事实是,东方人正在犯西方在发展时期犯过的同样错误。201208/193677。
  • You can make estimate of how much water has flow to carban,你可以估计曾经流过多少水,you can get numbers like a hundred,你可以用成百那样的数字进行编号,two hundreds Amazon Rivers all cut lose ones.这里类似两百多条的亚马逊河已经流干,消失殆尽。The big, big amount water flow the surface.巨大、存储量非常多的水曾经流经表面。The other big attraction on mars is the largest volcano and highest mountain in the solar system.在火星上的其他大吸引力是太阳系中最大的火山和最高的山。Olympics mountains tower that standing 17mills,奥林匹克山塔非常高,three times higher than Eiffel, its base covers more ground than the UK.它是埃菲尔铁塔的三倍,它的地基地总面积超过了英国。And massive caldera at some of it could easily swallow greater London, Paris and New York.一些巨大的山口喷火能轻易地吞下伦敦、巴黎和纽约。The things can be bigger on mars,在火星上东西更大,I think parts because the planet has low gravity,我想部分是因为这个行星重力非常低的缘故,as when you pull up half, you can pull up three times higher,当你拉起了一半,你就能拉起三倍,cause the gravity is three times less before it start claps on its own way.因为重力是比从前小三倍。Mars is far more active world than previously thought.火星是远比之前预想的世界更为活跃。we see lines light of dust, and golly, freshly carve by outflow mysterious blue.我们看到光线的灰尘,神啊,它们刚被神秘的蓝色流出物雕刻出。and this particular vision has been cleaned as flash frozen sea,这特别的视觉由于海洋的冻结已被清除,completely with fossil icebergs, likewise, they are glaciers,完全与化石冰山融为一体,同样地,它们也是冰川,geologically reset but now burn benefit protective blanket of dust,从地质学角度来说在休眠但现在从灰尘的保护中受益,wait it, for the next change of climate.它们等待着,等待着未来气候的变化。注:听力文本来源于普特201205/180865。
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