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This essay was written in response to Gideon Rachman’s invitation to ers to sit his ‘2066 history exam’. 【编者按】本文是应吉迪恩.拉赫曼(Gideon Rachman)邀请读者参加其2066年的历史考试而作。Of 170 entries, the FT is publishing the best five (see panel for the others). 英国《金融时报》从收到的170篇作品中选择了最优秀的五篇刊发(FT中文网选择其中三篇发表)。This piece addresses the question: Was Vladimir Putin a good or a bad tsar for Russia?本文要回答的问题是:普京对俄罗斯而言是个好沙皇还是坏沙皇?本文对未来的描述均为虚构。When Russia’s first freely elected (more or less) leader, Boris Yeltsin, resigned in 1999, the country’s progress depended upon his successor being more democratic, less corrupt and less drunk. 当俄罗斯首位大体上通过自由选举产生的领导人鲍里斯.叶利钦(Boris Yeltsin)于1999年辞职时,该国的进步取决于他的继任者比他更加民主,更少腐败,而且不那么醉醺醺。It got one out of three.结果只有一点成为现实。The coldly sober Vladimir Putin created a hybrid regime as a tsar steeped in the oppressive methods of the Soviet era. 清醒得冷冰冰的弗拉基米尔.普京(Vladimir Putin)作为一个沉迷于苏联时代种种压迫手段的沙皇,创建了一个混合政权。He formally granted himself the old monarchist title just months before his demise at the paws of 就在他去世的几个月之前,他正式授予自己这一旧时君主政体头衔。an insufficiently doped dancing bear during a tango for the broadcaster RT’s version of Strictly.最后他在今日俄罗斯(RT)电视台版本的《舞动奇迹》(Strictly)节目中与一头熊跳起探戈,却不料命丧于这头麻醉不够彻底的熊爪下。By falling victim to a failed publicity stunt, Putin did at least avoid the violent overthrow to which many dictators succumb. 沦为一出失败炒作受害者的普京,至少没有像许多独裁者那样被暴力推翻。His iron grip on the security forces and cultivation of cynical apathy among the population ensured that. 他对安全部队的铁腕掌控,以及助长民众看破一切的冷漠,确保了他坐稳权位。For much of his rule, he seemed to have restored order to Russia and rebuilt its global influence. 在他掌权的大部分时间里,他貌似恢复了俄罗斯的秩序,还重建了俄罗斯的全球影响力。But this was largely a Potemkin fa#231;ade that disguised how deeply he had corroded the country’s institutions and society. 但这在很大程度上只是一种波将金(Potemkin)假象,掩盖了他对国家机构和社会的深度腐蚀。His reign left chaos in its wake and was ultimately a disaster for Russia.他的统治在结束后留下种种混乱,最终对俄罗斯是一场灾难。Russia’s development was being hampered by corruption when Putin came to power. 普京上台时,俄罗斯的发展被腐败阻碍。His early campaign to banish some of the worst-offending oligarchs was justified. 他在早期打击了一些违法最严重的寡头,这些行动合乎情理,Sadly, the methods he used were not. 可惜他采用的方法并不正当。The subordination of the courts to the Kremlin crushed the nascent rule of law. This ended the transition to an open society that had begun even before the fall of communism, under Mikhail Gorbachev. 迫使法院听命于克里姆林宫破坏了新生的法治,扼杀了在共产党统治倒台之前、在米哈伊尔.戈尔巴乔夫(Mikhail Gorbachev)时代就已起步的向着开放社会努力的转型。Instead, might is right was reaffirmed as the governing principle.相反,强权即公理被再次确立为指导原则。Rather than returning the deposed oligarchs’ assets to the state or transparent private ownership, Putin made matters worse by redistributing them among his, mostly ex-KGB, cronies. 普京没有将落马寡头的资产归还国家或透明的私有产权,而是重新分配给自己的亲信(绝大部分是前克格勃),这令事态更加糟糕。For as long as these modern-day boyars depended on him for access to the trough, he could preserve stability by acting as arbiter between them. 因为只要这些当代波雅尔(boyars)依靠他捞取好处,他就可通过扮演他们的仲裁人来保持稳定。But after his death no other member of the ruling elite could assert similar authority, and the squabbling over the spoils descended into gang warfare.但在他去世后,统治精英中再无一人能维护类似威信,对利益的哄抢沦为帮派战争。The subsequent power struggle led to the disclosure of the full extent of his personal corruption. 随后的权力斗争导致他本人的腐败被悉数公开。As was suspected when the Panama Papers were released in 2016, the millions of dollars held in the name of his musician friend Sergei Roldugin were confirmed as belonging to the tsar. 正如2016年巴拿马文件(Panama Papers)公布时人们所怀疑的那样,他的音乐家朋友谢尔盖.罗尔杜金(Sergei Roldugin)名下持有的巨额美元被实属于这位沙皇。Documents found by Caucasian demonstrators who over-ran Putin’s palace in Sochi revealed his majority ownership of a Swiss-based commodity trading firm and extensive London property holdings.高加索示威者们在攻占普京在索契的宫殿后,发现了大量文件,实他拥有瑞士一家大宗商品贸易公司的多数股权,还在伦敦拥有大量房地产。While his own finances were healthy, Putin left Russia fragile economically. 尽管普京本人的财力十分雄厚,但他给俄罗斯留下了一个脆弱的经济。Some cosmetic improvements had been made to the big cities during his first decade in power. 在他执政的头十年,俄罗斯各大城市在外观上有所改善。But he failed to capitalise on a period when oil prices regularly exceeded 0 a barrel. 但他没能充分利用油价经常超过每桶100美元的这段时期。There was no diversification from the dependence on natural resources. Little was invested in the crumbling infrastructure or public services. 俄罗斯没有摆脱对自然资源的依赖,实现经济多样化,也没有怎么投资于陈旧的基础设施或公共务,The widesp poverty this led to in the late 2010s and 2020s era of cheap oil was compounded by the turmoil that followed the tsar’s death.导致俄罗斯在2010年代后期至2020年代的廉价石油时代陷入普遍贫困,而沙皇普京死后的动荡加剧了这种困境。Putin left Russia in an equally poor political state. 普京还给俄罗斯留下了一个同样贫乏的政治生态。He had avoided anointing a successor because he feared creating a rival power centre. 他生前不愿指定接班人,唯恐创建一个对立的权力中心。The Duma became a rubber-stamp parliament. 俄罗斯杜马成了橡皮图章议会。And by eliminating all genuine political parties and civil society organisations, he left few mechanisms through which a credible successor could emerge.他还铲除了所有真正的政党和公民社会组织,以至于没留下什么机制来产生可信的继任者。Perhaps the worst damage was done by his pioneering of the post-truth politics that blighted the world in the first half of the 21st century. 普京造成的最严重伤害或许是他开创的后真相政治(post-truth politics),这种风气在21世纪上半叶害了全世界。Even before Putin, centuries of autocracy had conditioned Russians to have low expectations of their rulers and deep tolerance of their misdeeds. 即使在普京之前,几个世纪的专制制度已使俄罗斯人习惯于对统治者预期不高,对其不当行为也有较高容忍力。The public’s apathetic cynicism was cultivated by his political technologists, such as Vladislav Surkov and Dmitry Kiselyov.普京的政治技术专家苏尔科夫.弗拉季斯拉夫(Vladislav Surkov)和德米特里.基谢廖夫(Dmitry Kiselyov)则助长了民众的这种看破一切的冷漠。Their strategy focused on convincing people that all politicians were equally dishonest but that the tsar would at least look after Russia’s interests as well as his own. 他们的策略聚焦于说人们相信:政客都一样不诚实,但沙皇普京至少会像照料自己一样顾及俄罗斯的利益。While this approach served Putin well, it was a tragedy for his country. 这种策略虽然达到了普京的目的,却是俄罗斯的悲剧。His propagandists erased the concept of objective truth and instead, as they put it, created realities. 他的宣传者抹去了客观真理的概念,代之以他们所称的创造现实,This left the people ill-equipped to exercise reasoned political choice and easy prey for the succession of even worse despots who followed Putin.导致人们没有能力作出合理政治选择,被普京之后更恶劣的一个又一个独裁者玩弄于股掌之上。The tsar’s aggressive foreign policy meant Russia’s collapse attracted little sympathy from the outside world. 沙皇普京咄咄逼人的外交政策意味着,俄罗斯的崩溃吸引不了外界多少同情。For a time in the late 2010s, he gloried in his revival of Moscow’s global influence through military interventions in Ukraine, Syria and the Baltic states. 2010年代末的一段时期,通过军事干预乌克兰、叙利亚和波罗的海国家,普京自我陶醉于重振莫斯科的全球影响力。But the tactic failed when it became clear that the Kremlin had no plan beyond mischief-making to attract US attention and distract the domestic audience from their troubles. 但是,当人们看清克里姆林宫除了捣乱以吸引美国注意力,并分散国内民众对生活困难的关注外,没有任何计划可言时,这一招也随之失败。Nato’s rapid, forceful military response reversed Russia’s incursions to the alliance’s member states and the west imposed tighter sanctions on Putin’s associates. 北约以迅速而坚决的军事回应击退俄罗斯对北约成员国的入侵,西方对普京的同伙施加了更严厉的制裁。At home, anger rose over the unrecognised sacrifice of soldiers fighting in unacknowledged wars.在俄罗斯国内,军人们在不被承认的战争中付出不被承认的牺牲,这激怒了民众。The final collapse of Putin’s attempt to reassert Moscow’s global power came when US President Donald Trump was inspired by a tweet he about Richard Nixon and struck a surprise grand bargain with China. 普京重新确立莫斯科全球强国地位企图的最终失败时刻,是当美国总统唐纳德.特朗普(Donald Trump)读到一条关于理查德.尼克松(Richard Nixon)的推文时受到启发,与中国达成了一个举世震惊的大妥协。The world’s two largest powers subsequently dominated global governance and Russia was sidelined by its former Chinese ally.全球两大强国随后联手主导全球治理,俄罗斯被前盟友中国冷落。History has exposed Putin as a bad tsar who did significant long-term damage to his country’s economy, society and international standing.历史明普京是个坏沙皇,对自己国家的经济、社会和国际地位带来重大长期损害。The writer is a former diplomat now based in Switzerland本文作者是一名前外交官,现定居于瑞士 /201611/476516

When James Cameron quickly whips up something in the kitchen当詹姆斯·卡梅隆突击下厨时How do you like my meatballs?你喜欢我做的肉丸吗? /201611/478115

The silver-haired gentleman in the perfectly tailored dark suit made a sweeping gesture and gave me a wistful smile.这位绅士满头银发,身穿剪裁合体的深色西装,他挥手示意,对我露出一个伤感的笑容。It was right here, he said. 就是在这里,他说。19521952年。He pointed to a particular spot on the floor. 他指着地面上的某一处。That is where she stood.她就站在这儿。If he was alive in 1952 he was a very little boy, but every guide I speak to at the Palazzo Colonna in Rome knows and reveres the spot where she stood. 如果他是在1952年之前出生的,那一年他肯定也只是个小男孩,但是我在罗马科隆纳宫(Palazzo Colonna)遇到的每个导游都知道她站立的那个地方,并且对之满怀敬意。Roman Holiday was the first American film to be shot in its entirety in Italy, and she was Audrey Hepburn in her first film role, playing a princess on the lam who spends one glorious day in Rome with a journalist who figures he has the scoop of his career. 《罗马假日》(Roman Holiday)是第一部完全在意大利拍摄的美国电影,而她则是奥黛丽#8226;赫本(Audrey Hepburn)饰演的第一个电影角色,一位出逃的公主,在罗马同一个觉得自己挖到了毕生最大独家新闻的记者度过了美好的一天。Gregory Peck was the journalist; it didn’t take long for the scoop to turn into a brief romance.饰演记者的是格利高里#8226;派克(Gregory Peck);要不了多久,挖新闻就变成了一段短暂的罗曼史。Roman Holiday was released in 1953, not 1952, but in context the guide is correct: She stood there in 1952, when the film was shot. 《罗马假日》是在1953年上映的,而不是1952年,但是在这里,这个导游是对的:电影是在1952年拍摄的,那时她的确站在这里。I walked over to stand where Ms Hepburn did in the film’s final scene, as the princess prepared to bid farewell to Rome, to Mr Peck, and to a room full of real journalists drafted to fill out the press conference — and although I have been a moviegoer since I was a child, I was not prepared for how delighted I would be to be exactly there, surrounded by make-believe memories.我走过去,站在赫本在影片最后一幕里站过的地方,当时这位公主要同罗马、同派克以及满屋被拉来参加新闻发布会的真正记者们道别——我从小就爱看电影,然而亲身站在这里,被虚构的记忆所围绕竟会让人如此快乐,这感觉还是来得猝不及防。This was my first visit to Rome, and I faced my own time constraints. 这是我第一次来罗马,我也有自己的时间限制。Too many friends said that it was impossible to see Rome in the three days I had, but things worked out pretty well for Princess Ann, so I decided to go where she did. 我只能在这里待三天,很多朋友都说这根本就不够,但是既然安妮公主都玩得很开心,我也决定去她去过的那些地方。She had one day, a knowledgeable guide in Mr Peck’s Joe Bradley, and the use of a Vespa; I had three days on foot. 她有一天时间、一个像派克饰演的乔#8226;布拉德利(Joe Bradley)那样学多才的向导,以及一辆伟士牌(Vespa)机车;我则有三天时间,需要步行。Much of what they saw was hundreds if not thousands of years old, so it would be right where they left it.他们看过的大部分景点不是有着几千年历史,就是已经存在了数百年,所以应该还和当年一样。Joe Bradley was looking for great copy and photo ops, while the princess, by her own admission, wanted to have fun — and maybe a little excitement, and I liked their itinerary, with its mix of ruins, food, window-shopping and dancing.乔#8226;布拉德利想做精的图文报道,而这位公主承认,她想找乐子——或许还想得到一点刺激的感觉。我喜欢他们的行程,去探访历史遗迹、享用美食、还有逛街和跳舞。The Palazzo was surely the most formal of the film’s locations. 科隆纳宫肯定是影片中最正式的地点。I vowed to include as well the Castel Sant’Angelo, the backdrop for the wackiest scene in the film, a melee that involved music under the stars, the princess using a guitar in self-defense, an unplanned late-night swim and, this being Hollywood, a glimpse of fleeting love. 我决心一定要去,还有圣天使堡(Castel Sant’Angelo),片中最奇异的一幕就是以它为背景,那是一团大混战:星光下放着音乐,公主用吉他当武器保护自己,计划之外的深夜游泳,还有好莱坞免不了的短暂爱情。I watched the film again before I left, consulted the website imdb.com for local information, and mapped the rest of my visit.我动身之前把这部片子重新看了一遍,从imdb.com网站上查到了当地信息,在地图上标记了余下的行程。The Arch of Septimus Severus and the Temple of Saturn塞维鲁(The Arch of Septimus Severus)与萨图尔诺农神庙(Temple of Saturn)Princess Ann fled her country’s embassy after yet another night of reviewing the next day’s schedule and a bedtime snack of milk and crackers. 安妮公主在自己国家的使馆里看过翌日的行程,睡前喝了牛奶,吃了饼干后就从那里溜出来了。She escaped in the back of a truck, and Joe Bradley found her half-asleep on a low wall in front of the arch. 她逃进一辆卡车后部,乔#8226;布拉德利发现她在拱门前的一堵矮墙上半睡半醒。To the right, the eight remaining pillars of the Temple of Saturn, built in 476 B.C. 在她右边是八根萨图尔诺农神庙的残存石柱,那里于公元前476年建立。This location is at the northwest end of the Roman Forum, for those who come here to look at the ruins — which the princess and the journalist did not. 提醒一下想来这里参观遗迹的人,这个地方位于古罗马广场(Roman Forum)的西北角。But I had time and daylight on my side, so I lingered to consider the vast scale of the Forum. 片中公主和和记者并没有观赏遗迹,但我有足够的时间,白天还长,所以我就在广场上漫步,盘算着它到底有多大。Yes, I leaned against the very wall where Ms Hepburn pretended to slumber; not quite as good as being discovered by Mr Peck, but it would have to do.是的,我也靠在了赫本在拍片时靠着装睡的那堵墙上;虽然没有被派克发现那么美妙,但也只能这样了。The Colosseum圆形大剧场(The Colosseum)In the days before computer-generated images, real men tore each other apart, and this is where they did it. 在电脑生成画面技术之前的岁月里,真正的男性斗士搏命厮杀,这里就是他们动手的地方。The largest amphitheater in the world had just a few strategically placed tourists in it when a guide explained its 2,000-year history to Princess Ann and Joe. 罗马圆形大剧场是世界上最大的圆形剧场,片中一位导游给安妮公主和乔讲解它2000年历史的时候,偌大的场地里只有几个游客,他们的位置也是精心安排的。Times have changed: Occasionally the admissions lines grind to a halt because no more than 3,000 visitors can enter the Colosseum at any one time. 时代已经变了:如今,入口的长队不时会慢慢停下来,因为圆形大剧场只允许同时容纳3000名游客。But do not be dissuaded. 但是不要放弃。I expected a quick stroll and then the real-life equivalent of a jump cut to the next scene, but the more I walked, the more I wanted to walk, to try to grasp the graceful enormity of this violent place.我本来只希望匆匆逛一下,然后就去影片下一幕在现实中的取景地,但我越往前走,就越想走下去,想了解这处暴力场所优雅的巨大形貌。Piazza della Rotonda, the Pantheon万神殿(Pantheon)If you were a princess in 1953, you ordered Champagne for lunch. 如果你是一位1953年的公主,午餐时就会点香槟喝。But the G. 但是罗马万神殿(Pantheon)旁边的G. Rocca cafe by the Pantheon is no more. Rocca餐厅如今已经不在了。Now there are two less glamorous but satisfying options: L’Antica Salumeria at Piazza della Rotonda 4 greets the hungry at the door with free samples of porchetta, and inside serves an array of sandwiches and antipasti. 现在有两个选择,虽然相对没那么富有魅力,但也足以令人满意:罗通达广场(Piazza della Rotonda)4号的L’Antica Salumeria在门前用免费试吃的猪肉卷来欢迎饥肠辘辘的游客,屋内还有许多种三明治与开胃菜。Just off the opposite side of the square, at Tazza d’Oro, Via degli Orfani 84, you can get the signature granita di caffè con panna, sweetened coffee frozen to a granular slush and topped with whipped cream. 广场的另一头是Via degli Orfani 84号的金杯咖啡馆(Tazza d’Oro),那里可以买到招牌的奶油冰咖啡,这是一种冻成冰泥的甜咖啡,顶上是鲜奶油霜。Ann paid no attention to the hulking Pantheon. 安妮没去留意庞大的万神殿。I think that’s why I embraced her tour; sitting at a sidewalk cafe, watching the world go by, is a great way to experience a city.我觉得正因如此,我才喜欢她的旅行;坐在路边咖啡馆里,看着世界在身边流逝,这是体验城市的好办法。The Spanish Steps西班牙阶梯(The Spanish Steps)This is where Joe found Ann eating a chocolate gelato she bought from a cart at the base of the steps, in the Piazza di Spagna. 在西班牙广场(Piazza di Spagna),乔发现安妮正在吃从台阶底端的冰淇淋车买来的巧克力冰淇淋。She lied and said that she had run away from school, and he offered to help her plan her day of fun and excitement. 她谎称自己是从学校跑出来的,他则提议带着她寻欢作乐一整天,找找刺激。The sweeping 135-step stairway, built between 1723 and 1725, links the Piazza di Spagna with the Piazza Trinità dei Monti at the top. 这段漫长的135级台阶是在1723年到1725年间建造的,把西班牙广场和阶梯顶端的山上天主圣三教堂(Piazza Trinità dei Monti)连在一起。And while you can purchase a selfie stick from any one of a dozen vendors, there was no gelato cart.如今那里有十几个小贩,你可以从随便哪个人手上买一个自拍杆,只是冰淇淋车已经没有了。Palazzo Colonna科隆纳宫(Palazzo Colonna)The director William Wyler shot Roman Holiday in black and white to save money, so the most startling thing about the great hall in Palazzo Colonna is that it’s saturated with color, the walls covered in paintings. 为了省钱,导演威廉#8226;惠勒(William Wyler)把《罗马假日》拍成了黑白片,所以科隆纳宫大厅最让我震撼的就是它充满了色,四壁都挂着油画。It is one of the oldest and biggest private palaces in Rome; construction got underway in the 14th century and went on for five centuries, and members of the family still live here. 这是罗马最古老,最宏大的私人宫殿之一;于公元14世纪开始兴建,一直持续了五个世纪,如今这个家族的成员依然居住在这里。Art lovers pack the Saturday tours — English language at noon. 星期六,艺术爱好者们大批赶来——这天中午有英语解说。Or you can wander without a guide on that day only from 9 in the morning to 1:15 in the afternoon. 不过在这一天里,你也可以不跟随导游,自己在宫殿内闲逛,不过开放时间只是从早9点到下午1:15。This is where the story ends. 这里是故事结束的地方。The princess realized that Joe was a journalist and the two recited the kind of coded but passionate dialogue that only they — and the film’s audience — understood.公主发现乔是记者,两人交换了如同暗码但又充满的对话,只有他们两人才懂——当然电影观众们也能心领神会。 /201610/472933

What is bitcoin?比特币是什么?Bitcoin is a kind of digital currency.比特币是一种数字货币。You can buy it with dollars or euros, just like you can trade any other currency.你可以像兑换其他货币一样,用美元、欧元购买比特币。You store it in an online “wallet.” And with that wallet, you can spend bitcoin online and in the physical world for goods and services.存入网上“钱包”,然后可以通过这个“钱包”用比特币在网上或现实世界购买物品或务。And, of course, bitcoin has a valuation, which you may have heard about because bitcoin#39;s price has fluctuated up and down.当然,你可能有所耳闻,比特币也有估值,因为比特币的价格会上下波动。What#39;s different about bitcoin?比特币有何不同?Usually, if you pay for something on the Internet, you use a credit or debit card.如果你在网上买东西,通常你需要信用卡或借记卡。That card is connected to information about you, such as your name and billing address.这些卡会绑定你的个人信息,比如你的名字和账单邮寄地址。You can use bitcoin the same way, but unlike with a credit card, the transactions you make with the currency are completely anonymous.同样,你可以用比特币在网上消费,但是不同于使用信用卡,使用比特币的交易是完全匿名的交易。They can#39;t be used to identify you personally.所以这些交易无法用来识别你的个人身份。So you can use bitcoin to protect your privacy. Is that why the WannaCry attackers picked it as a form of payment?你可以用比特币保护自己的个人信息。那么,这是比特币勒索病毒散布者选择用比特币作为付方式的原因吗?Possibly. Bitcoin has certainly gained prominence in the news media as a technology that can facilitate crime.有可能。比特币成为助长犯罪的手段,无疑受到众多新闻媒体的关注。But even though the identities of people in a bitcoin transaction may be hidden, the public ledger has increasingly helped law enforcement trace the movement of bitcoins from place to place.但是即使在使用比特币的交易中交易者的身份隐匿,公开的账簿依然能帮助执法人员追踪比特币的去向。 /201705/509954Beauty sleep is a real thing, according to researchers who have shown that people who miss out on sleep do appear less attractive to others.美容觉原来是真的:据研究人员表示,错失睡眠的人对其他人来说,魅力显得不足。A couple of bad nights is enough to make a person look ;significantly; more ugly, their sleep experiments suggest.他们有关睡眠的实验表明,几个睡不好的晚上就足以让一个人的容貌“明显”变差。Dark-circled ;panda; eyes and puffy lids can even put others off socialising with you, they say.研究人员称,熊猫眼和肿眼皮甚至会使他人与你的交际受到影响。People were rated by strangers as less healthy and approachable when they had tired faces.在陌生人眼中,疲惫的面容会被当成不健康、甚至是不便靠近的象征。The researchers asked 25 university students, some male and some female, to be the guinea pigs in their sleep experiment.研究人员在他们的睡眠实验中,请来了25名男女大学生来作为实验对象。They were asked to get a good night#39;s sleep for two consecutive nights. A week later, they were asked to restrict themselves to only four hours sleep per night for two nights in a row.这些大学生被要求连续两个星期保持优质睡眠。一个星期后,他们被要求在连续两个晚上,每晚只睡四小时。The researchers took make-up free photos of the volunteers after both the good and the bad sleep sessions.在这两个优质睡眠和劣质睡眠的环节过后,研究人员给志愿者们照了素颜照片。Next, they asked 122 strangers - women and men living in Sweden#39;s capital city, Stockholm - to have a look at the photos and rate them on attractiveness, health, sleepiness and trustworthiness, as well as asking them: ;How much would you like to socialise with this person in the picture?;接着,研究人员召集了122名与志愿者素不相识的陌生人。他们当中有男有女,都住在瑞典首都斯德哥尔。这些人被要求看着志愿者的照片,对他们的魅力程度、健康状况、睡眠情况和信任程度进行评价。研究人员还会问他们一个问题:“你有多想跟照片上的这个人交朋友?”The strangers were good at judging if the person they were looking at was tired, and, if they were sleepy, their attractiveness score suffered.这群人的眼力很好。如果照片上的人显得疲倦不堪,或者看起来很缺觉,他们魅力程度的分数便很低。The strangers also said they would be less willing to socialise with the tired students, who they also perceived to be less healthy, Royal Society Open Science journal reports.据英国期刊《皇家协会开放科学》报道,这些陌生人也表示,他们更不愿意与那些看起来很累的学生交朋友,他们认为这些人的身体状况不太好。The Karolinska Institute researchers says this makes sense in evolutionary terms.来自卡罗林斯卡学院的研究人员说,从进化的角度来看,这十分符合常理。;An unhealthy-looking face, whether due to sleep deprivation or otherwise, might activate disease-avoiding mechanisms in others.;“一张看起来不健康的脸,不管它是由于睡眠不足还是其他原因导致的,都可能会激活其他人身体内躲避疾病的机制。”In other words, people don#39;t want to hang around with people who might be ill, whereas someone who looks energetic and fit will hold lots of appeal.换句话说,人们不想跟可能患病的人待在一起。而那些看起来活力四射、身体健康的人则魅力十足。Lead researcher Dr Tina Sundelin added: ;I don#39;t want to worry people or make them lose sleep over these findings though.首席研究员蒂娜·孙德琳士补充道:“我不希望这些实验结果让人们担忧或者睡得不好。”;Most people can cope just fine if they miss out on a bit of sleep now and again.;“偶尔睡得不好没有关系,大部分人都可以恢复得很好。”Dr Gayle Brewer, a psychology expert at the University of Liverpool and member of the British Psychological Association, said: ;Judgement of attractiveness is often unconscious, but we all do it, and we are able to pick up on even small cues like whether someone looks tired or unhealthy.;盖利·布鲁尔士是利物浦大学的一名心理学专家及英国心理学协会成员。他说:“对外表魅力程度的评价往往是无意识的,但是我们一直都在做这件事。我们能够从一些很小的细节,比如说这个人是否疲惫或者是否健康,来对他人进行评价。”;We want our partners to be attractive and energetic. This study is a good reminder of how important sleep is to us.;“我们希望我们的同伴看起来魅力十足,充满活力。这个研究对我们来说是一个很好的提醒,它告诉我们,睡眠是多么重要。” /201705/510867

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