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2019年05月20日 00:54:05来源:飞度排名免费医生

  • THE flow of oil from cracks in the seabed off the coast of Rio de Janeiro has long since slowed to a mere trickle. Not so the retribution against Chevron, an American oil company that was drilling in the Frade oilfield on November 7th when a sudden rise in pressure caused a leak.原油从里约热内卢离岸海床的裂缝中流出已经是很久的事情了,不过由于溢出的原油只是缓慢的涓涓细流(而没人发现它并受到惩罚)。然而这次雪佛龙所受的惩罚就不是这样了。11月7日,这家来自美国的石油公司正在Frade油田钻探,剧升的压力引发了(明显的)原油泄漏。Brazilrsquo;s environment agency, IBAMA, has fined the company 50m reais (m) for the leak. On December 23rd it levied a further 10m reais for poor contingency planning. The National Petroleum Agency (ANP), the industry regulator, has closed one of Chevronrsquo;s Frade wells and suspended the firmrsquo;s drilling rights. The Rio de Janeiro state government is suing for 150m reais. A federal prosecutor in Campos, a city in the north of the state, is demanding 20 billion reais in punitive damages and seeking an injunction to halt all operations in Brazil by both Chevron and Transocean, the subcontractor drilling for it in Frade. Federal police, meanwhile, want to bring criminal charges against bosses of both companies.  巴西的环境部门;;巴西可再生资源与环保局已经因这次泄漏事故对雪佛龙处以5,000万雷亚尔(2,800美元)罚款。12月23日,该局又为可能性极低的规划对雪佛龙追加1,000万雷亚尔的罚款。石油管理机构;;巴西国家石油(ANP)已经关闭雪佛龙位于Frade的其中一处油井,同时取消了这家公司的钻探权。里约热内卢政府正在申诉15,000万雷亚尔的罚款。位于巴西北方的城市;;Campos的一位联邦公诉人提出200亿雷亚尔的惩罚性损失赔偿,并正在寻求禁止雪佛龙和Transocean公司在巴西的所有作业的强制令。Transocean公司承担雪佛龙在Frade 钻探任务。与此同时,联邦警察意图以刑事罪处置两家公司的主管人员。After the 4.9m-barrel spill from the Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, oil regulators around the world are in no mood for leniency. But the blitz against Chevron, for a leak of no more than 3,000 barrels, makes some industry-watchers wonder whether Brazil wants foreign oil companies at all. ;The reactions are out of proportion with the size of the leak,; says Joseacute; Goldemberg, an energy and environment specialist at the University of Satilde;o Paulo. Petrobras, Brazilrsquo;s state-controlled oil giant, holds a minority stake in Frade, but none of the lawsuits or fines names it as a respondent. ;I donrsquo;t think there would have been the same enthusiasm for big fines if Petrobras had been drilling.; 自2010年墨西哥湾Macondo油井490万桶原油泄漏后,全球各国石油管理部门严厉无比。但仅因区区3,000桶而对雪佛龙铺天盖地地进行惩罚,这使得一事行业观察家怀疑巴西是否完全不想要外国石油了。;这些反应与泄漏规模是不相对称的,;一位圣保罗的大学的能源与环境专家Joseacute; Goldemberg表示。巴西政府控股的石油巨头拥有Frade的少量股份,但它却从未作为被告面临任务诉讼罚款。;假设Petrobras(也像雪佛龙一样)进行钻探,我不认为当局会同样积极处以这么大的罚款。;Brazil ended Petrobrasrsquo;s monopoly and opened up its oil industry to private and foreign investment in the 1990s. But its recent oil policy has been ;nationalist and populist;, says Adriano Pires, a Rio-based energy consultant and former ANP official. It has restricted foreign companies to secondary roles in most new projects. A law approved in 2010 requires that in the recently discovered ultra-deep preacute;-sal (;sub-salt;) fields, Petrobras must be the operator with a minimum 30% stake (existing concessions are unaffected). Mr Pires fears that Chevronrsquo;s mishandling of communications will only harden the new mood. The company was slow to make details of the accident public, he says, and arrogant when it did; press conferences in English went down particularly badly. ;It gave the authorities another chance to claim that foreign oil companies drilling in Brazil act carelessly,; he laments.上世纪90年代,巴西取消了Petrobras的垄断权,同时对私营企业和外国投资者开放该国的石油产业。但Adriano Pires表示,巴西最近的石油政策让其变成;国家主义者和平民主义者;。 Adriano Pires是扎根里约热内卢能源顾问,同时也是巴西国家石油的前官员。在大多数新项目上,巴西已经将外国公司置诸次要地位。2010年,一项经批准的法律要求最近被发现的超级深海盐田,Petrobras作为经营的一方必须至少拥有30%的股份(目前的特许权看来是不会动摇的)。Pires担忧不正确的公关举措将只会加深这种新的情绪。Pires表示,雪佛龙傲慢的态度以及缓慢公布这次泄漏事故的相关细节。用英语的记者执行使这种情况变得更糟。;这给当局另一个机会去指责在巴西钻探的外国石油公司表现漫不经心。;Pires惋惜地表示。201201/167614。
  • Child Labor Laws-Today on Congressional Moment:Over a hundred years ago the Industrial Revolution quickened the pace of manufacturing, and businessmen sought cheaper labor. Millions of children worked at dangerous jobs, and the national debate over Child Labor laws began. Listen to these journal entries from the early 1900s...今日国会时刻——儿童劳动法:一百多年前,随着工业革命到来,制造业的发展步伐加快,商人们要寻求更加廉价的劳动力。数百万的儿童干着危险的工作,关于童工劳动法的争论也愈演愈烈。下面来听听来自20世纪早期的日记条目。Character Voice 1:On cold, rainy mornings, well before dawn, I have been awakened by the clatter of boots as the half-awake, joyless children hurried not to school, but to the great factory. They are thin and sickly looking...日记1:在寒冷,下着雨的早晨,黎明前夕,我被一阵哗啦的靴子声吵醒,原来是睡眼朦胧,郁郁寡欢的孩童,他们急促地跑向大工厂,而不是学校。他们身型瘦弱,面容憔悴...Character Voice 2:I worked in a factory where they made oil cans, and I saw children 8 and 10 years old work like slaves on big machines...most every day it happened that a finger or hand was cut off, but that didnt matter, they were sent home, and others would take their places.日记2:我在一家生产油壶的工厂上班,我看见八九岁的孩子们在巨大的机器前像奴隶一样干活...几乎每天都有童工的手指、手被机器碾断,但这种情况并没有引起重视,他们被遣送回家,其他的孩子会填补他的位子。ANNCR: The injustices of child labor prompted people to organize, in an effort to get Congressional regulation. While many states took it upon themselves to regulate child labor, many did not.童工受到的不公正待遇促使人们去成立组织,致力于赢取国会的改革方案。许多州主动承担起规范儿童劳动市场的责任,然而其他州却没有。As national discontent continued to grow, a key challenge for Congress was protecting children in every state without interfering with states rights.随着国内不满情绪日益高涨,国会面临着重大挑战——在不损害各州利益的同时保护童工的合法权益。Eventually, after years of debate, the Fair Labor Standards Act was passed in 1938, and upheld by the Supreme Court in 1941. It provided basic protections, not only to children, but to all workers in the U.S.最终,经过几年的争论,《公平劳动标准法案》于1938年出台,并于1941年获得最高法院持。这条法案不仅是在保护儿童的基本权益,也是在保护所有的美国公民。原文译文属!201210/203189。
  • Now from the Boston Museum of Science, Sci-tech Today, on NECN.有线新闻波士顿消息。4,500 people worldwide have died from swine flu since March of this year. Its just a fraction of those who have contracted the virus. But health experts are trying to figure out why some people dont survive it. In Sci-tech Today, we find out the answer may lie with the lunges. And joining us now from Museum of Science Boston is Brindha Muniappan. Thanks so much Brindha for joining us.今年有4,5000人死于猪流感(甲型性流感)。我们发现只有部分接触病毒的人群患病。健康专家正在研究为什么猪流感能致人死亡。今天的Sci-tech我们要弄明白猪流感和肺的关系,波士顿科学院的Brindha Muniappan将和我们一起探讨这一问题,欢迎。Thanks Caroine. And Brindha, why is H1N1 so deadly?谢谢主持人。Brindha,为什么H1N1会致人死亡?Well, it is a type of the influenza virus, much like the flu viruses we see in the winter, our normal flu season. But the normal flu, the seasonal flu virus typically affects people who dont have very strong immune systems, like the elderly, or the very young, or even pregnant women. But the H1N1 type A influenza virus, also known as the swine flu virus has been very devastating to people whore normally healthy with strong immune systems including teenagers and young adults.这是一种流行病毒,就想冬天流感季节的病毒一样。一般的季节性病毒攻击的是抵抗力弱的人群,比如老人,小孩儿,甚至是妇。但H1N1病毒,也就是猪流感病毒,攻击的是健康人,免疫力强的人,包括青少年和成人。And so researchers have found that there is some connection to the lung—a lack of oxygen?研究人员发现这和肺缺氧有关?Yeah, so there are 3 new studies that were published in the ;Journal of American Medical Association;. And the researchers in these studies took a look at hospital records in Mexico, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. And they took a look at hospital records of people who had been admitted to the intensive care units, so people who are critically ill, who have come down with the H1N1 virus and tried to figure out if there was, commonalities, certain characteristics that were similar to these patients. And they did find that a large majority of these patients were lacking in oxygen in their bodies. So they werent getting enough oxygen to their lungs and into their bloodstream.是的,美国医学会的期刊刊登了3篇相关文章。研究人员观测了墨西哥,加拿大,澳大利亚和新西兰四个国家的医院记录,查看了加护病房的病例,研究了病重和幸存病人的数据发现了这些病人的共同特征。那就是大部分的患者身体中的氧含量低。患者不能从肺提供的血流中得到足够的氧。So how, Brindha then, dose this change the way that people are treated?那么,知道了这一点会改变医治患者的方法吗?Well, this is hopefully going to provide a lot of information and help to physicians to treat people who come down with severe cases of H1N1. Possibly by letting physicians know, well, you know, if we have a critically ill patient with this disease, we need to probably, administrate extra oxygen more than likely the patient is going to have to go on a mechanical ventilator, a machine to add oxygen to their body. Physicians are going to have to pay close attention to the patient, probably administer anti-viral medications and maybe even you know, monitor the patient and watch out for secondary infections that could be caused by other organisms, other viruses, but maybe even bacteria. So theyll also have to watch out and possibly provide antibiotics as well. But for all these patients in these 3 studies that were taken a look at. All of those patients just about all required an extensive amount of time in the intensive care units once they had come down with the severe case of H1N1.这一研究结果提供了猪流感的更多信息,并有助于医生医治猪流感患者。医生们知道了这一研究结果,面对猪流感的重症患者时,就会额外地为患者输氧,而不只是让患者从医院排风扇呼吸氧气。医生们能够密切观察病人,精确使用抗病毒药物,有效防范其他病毒细菌的二次感染,合理使用抗生素。但是这三篇文章中的所有研究对象在度过猪流感危险期后曾再次回到加护病房。All right, Brindha Muniappen, thank you so much for joining us.好的,Brindha Muniappen,谢谢你的报道。Youre welcome, Calrine.没关系,Calrine。And you can join in us every Thursday morning at this time for Sci-tech Today or log on to the Museum of Science website mos.org.每周四早晨敬请收看Sci-tech Today,或关注我们的网站mos.org。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/181406。
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