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原标题: 重庆市整容医院哪家最好飞度医院排行
Science and technology.科技。Exercise and addiction.锻炼也会上瘾。Fun run.奔跑的奥秘。People, it seems, have evolved to be addicted to exercise.人类似乎在进化过程中对锻炼上瘾了。AS THE legions of gym bunnies and jogging enthusiasts who race out into the spring sunshine every year clearly demonstrate, running can be fun. More specifically, running triggers the release of brain chemicals called endocannabinoids that create a potent feeling of pleasure. As their name suggests, these endocannabinoids work in the same way as the active ingredient of marijuana.那一大批在春日和煦的阳光中奔跑着的健身爱好者无不向我们展示着奔跑的乐趣。更确切地讲,在奔跑时人体内有一种化学物质被释放,从而使人产生一种强烈的愉悦感。正如其名字的含义一般,这些endocannabinoids有着跟大麻中的有效成分一样的效果。From an evolutionary standpoint this surge of endocannabinoids, and the ;runners high; it creates, make sense. For ancient humans, remaining fit enough to run after game and away from predators and enemies was vital for survival. Yet whether other mammals are also driven to exercise by endocannabinoids has remained a mystery. Now a study led by David Raichlen of the University of Arizona has revealed that the runners high does exist in other species, but not in all.从进化论的观点来看,人体内endocannabinoids水平的上升及由此而生的;赛跑者的亢奋;对人类的发展是有意义的。那些远古时代的人类,为了能够顺利追捕到猎物并从其他猎食者的追击中逃脱,必须将身体状态始终维持在一个良好的水平。既然人类如此,那么其他哺乳动物是否也会在endocannabinoids的内在驱动下而进行锻炼呢?这仍是个未解之谜。现在一项由Arizona大学的David Raichlen士领衔的研究已经在其他哺乳动物体内---并非全部都有——发现了endocannabinoids的存在。You expect me to what?你猜我在干什么?Dr Raichlen hypothesised that endocannabinoid-driven exercise highs would be found in those mammals that gain an evolutionary benefit from being fast on their feet: antelopes, horses and wolves, for example. However, he also thought that they would not be present in those which are known for being quick and agile, but not for running, like ferrets. To test these ideas, he and a team of colleagues devised an experiment that monitored the endocannabinoid levels of different species after they had been walking or running on a tmill.Raichlen先提出了一个假设:像羚羊,马和狼这样一些因拥有;飞毛腿;而在进化过程中受益的哺乳动物中也存在着;锻炼产生的兴奋;现象;而那些以灵动著称,却非凭奔跑文明的动物,如雪貂,则不会出现此现象。为了检验这些猜想,Raichlen和由其同事所组成的团队设计了一个实验——对在跑步机上行走,奔跑过后的动物体内的endocannabinoids水平进行监控。The experimental animals in question were ten people, eight dogs and eight ferrets. Dr Raichlen had them run or walk on the tmill for 30 minutes. Since running and walking speeds differ from species to species, the speed at which the tmill moved was varied so that it raised the heart rates of the different participants to the same level. Running speeds were thus set at 2.5 metres a second for people, 1.83 for dogs and 0.84 for ferrets. Walking speeds were set at 1.25 metres a second for people and 1.1 for dogs. The ferrets proved too easily distracted to walk consistently on the tmills and were thus left to sit quietly in their cages for this part of the study. Each participating animal ran for one session and walked for one other, and did so on separate days, to avoid exhaustion. Before and after each session, blood was drawn from each and the endocannabinoid levels in it were measured.被考虑用来进行实验的动物有以下三种:十个人,八条和八只雪貂。Raichlen士先让他们在跑步机上行走或奔跑30分钟。由于不同的动物速度不一,所以跑步机的传送带速度设置是以使不同动物的心率达到同一水平为依据。这样设置的结果便为:奔跑速度为人类2.5米/秒,1.83米/秒,雪貂0.84米/秒;行走速度为人类1.25米/秒,1.1米/秒。雪貂由于太易分心,没办法让它持续在跑步机上行走,所以在进行该部分实验时它们被留在了笼中静静地坐着。每只动物会跑一段走一段,为了避免动物们出现筋疲力尽的情况,实验是分成几天进行的。在实验前和试验后,动物们都会被抽血以检验其中的endocannabinoid水平。The researchers report in the Journal of Experimental Biology that, after 30 minutes of walking (or sitting in a cage), participants endocannabinoid levels did not rise. After running, however, the average humans endocannabinoid levels rose from 2.4 picomoles per millilitre (pmol/ml) to 6.1. Dogs showed a similar trend, with levels rising from 2.4 pmol/ml to 8.0. Ferrets were different. Although they did show an increase, from 3.0 to 3.9 pmol/ml, this was not a statistically significant rise. These findings suggest that dogs experience a ;runners high; but ferrets do not.研究人员在《生物学实验》杂志中提到,在经过30分钟的行走(雪貂是呆在笼中)之后,参加实验的动物的endocannabinoid水平并没上升。然而在奔跑过后情况则有所不同:那10个人的平均endocannabinoid水平从2.4 pmol/ml上升到了6.1 pmol/ml。的变化趋势与人类似——由2.4 pmol/ml升至8.0 pmol/ml。唯独雪貂例外。他们的endocannabinoid水平虽亦有所上升——3.0 至 3.9 pmol/ml,但仍处于统计学上可不被纳入考虑的范围内。这些发现表明中同样存在着;赛跑者的亢奋;现象,而雪貂则没有。Dr Raichlen argues that it makes sense for ferrets not to have systems that reward cardiovascular activity, since such exercise consumes a lot of energy, may cause injury, and is not crucial to the stealthy hunting technique of sneaking down burrows and killing rabbits in their sleep. What is not clear is whether the endocannabinoid reward is an ancient mechanism that has been lost on branches of the mammalian tree that do not need it, or is something that evolves quickly in species which become active. Given that humanitys arboreal simian ancestors would presumably have had little need to run, it is probably the latter. But to be sure Dr Raichlen will need to put animals far less co-operative than ferrets on the tmill.看来雪貂体内并不存在对心血管活动进行阳性强化刺激的系统,Raichlen士认为这对雪貂的发展同样是有意义的,要知道太剧烈的运动会消耗掉过多的能量, 甚至引发受伤,且这并非是雪貂捕猎技术中的关键——它们一般只需偷偷溜进兔子窝并在兔子们熟睡时将其杀死即可。仍有待考的是,究竟这种endocannabinoid刺激机制是从远古时代起即为哺乳类动物所拥有(但在一些不需此机制的哺乳类分中渐渐退化),还是从某些活跃的个别物种中进化出来的?鉴于人类的祖先—类人猿是树栖动物,据推测它们很少有奔跑的需要,因此正确结论很可能是后者。但若要确认此假设,Raichlen士需将更多如雪貂般不太合作的动物哄上跑步机。 /201209/199733Business Home entertainment Netflix messes up商业 家庭 Netflix这回弄巧成拙了The terror of the film and television business has become a lot less scary电影和电视业的担忧恐惧都显得微不足道LAST December Jeff Bewkes, Time Warners boss, sneered that Netflix threatened media about as much as the Albanian army threatened world peace. Few were fooled. Netflix, which hires out DVDs through the post as well as streaming films and television through the internet, had aly impoverished Hollywood by training people to rent DVDs instead of buying them. It was starting to lure people away from pay-television. But then the army began marching in the wrong direction, and its general shot himself in the foot.在去年12月,时代华纳的老板Jeff Bewkes曾嘲笑Netflix就像阿尔巴尼亚军队危害了世界和平一样危害了媒体业。Netflix,一个凭借邮递务租售DVD光碟和通过互联网租售流媒体电影和电视节目的公司,由于使得人们不再购买DVD光碟而只是租借它们,早已让好莱坞的收入大为缩水。它在开始引诱人们离开付费频道,但上当者人数寥寥。然而,这军队接下来开始朝着错误的方向进军,这次,这位上将是搬起石头砸了自己的脚。On September 1st Netflix began imposing new prices on its 25m subscribers. Americans had been able to pay .99 a month for DVDs through the post as well as the right to stream some films and programmes. Netflix would henceforth offer them a choice: .99 a month for streaming, or the same price for DVDs. People who wanted both would pay .98.自9月1日起,Netflix开始对2500万订阅用户执行新的收费方案。在这之前,美国人每个月只需付9.99美元,就能享受邮递租借DVD光碟和网络观赏一些流媒体电影、电视节目的务。现在,Netflix给了他们一个选择:要么每个月为流媒体务付7.99美元,要么以同样的价格租借DVD光碟。两种务都需要的人则需每月付15.98美元。Customers dont like it. They have jammed the firms switchboard and posted 82,000 largely hostile comments on its Facebook page. Netflix told investors to expect a rare loss of subscribers, driving its shares down. The companys reputation for top-notch customer service has been tarnished. So Netflixs founder and chief executive, Reed Hastings, tried to explain himself—and made matters far worse.用户们并不喜欢这个方案。许多人的投诉电话蜂拥而至以致电话系统瘫痪,并且在Netflix的Facebook主页上留下了多达82000条的恶意。Netflix告知投资者们要做好因订阅用户人数大幅下降所带来的股份下滑的准备,这所公司以顶级用户务著称的名誉已经蒙上了污点。因此,Netflix的创立人兼总裁Reed Hastings尝试为自己的决定辩解——却只是越描越黑。On September 18th Mr Hastings explained that the company feared being left behind by technological change, like AOL with its dial-up service. It was separating DVDs from streaming because its future lies in streaming. The DVD-by-post service, he said, would move to a new website, with a new billing system, and be renamed Qwikster. Its an odd name (whatever else the US Postal Service is, it isnt qwik) and a big mistake. As The Economist went to press, Netflix shares were trading around 0—a steep decline from their July peak of 9.在9月18日,Hastings先生解释说到他害怕公司会像还在提供拨号上网业务的美国在线务公司那样被日新月异的科技变化抛在背后,之所以要把DVD光碟业务从流媒体业务中分离出来是因为这项业务的未来存在于流媒体技术之中。他说到,邮递租借DVD光碟业务将会被移至一个新的网站,拥有新的付系统,并被重新命名为Qwikster。这真是一个怪名字(不管美国邮政系统该叫什么,都不会叫;qwik;)和一个大错误。在本文交付印刷之时,Netflix的股票成交价大概在130美元左右——与他们在7月份299美元封顶的价格相比下了一个大滑坡。Netflix has made a tactical error and treated its customers shabbily. It has also jumped too hastily into the future—as if Renault were to declare that electric cars are the future and rename its petrol-car division Qwikmobile.Netflix不仅犯了策略性错误,而且对待用户们糟糕透顶。另外,它对未来的规划也太过急进——好比说雷诺公司对外宣称电动车是未来发展的方向,然后就把他们的汽车部门改名为Qwikmobile。Worst of all, Netflix has disregarded a big strategic advantage. DVDs may be old media, but they come with strong legal protections. As soon as a DVD is released by a Hollywood studio, roughly four months after the film appears in cinemas, Netflix can start renting it. To stream a film via the internet, in contrast, Netflix must strike an agreement with the studio or TV firm that owns it. As Netflix has become richer and scarier, negotiations have become harder. The company must wait eight or nine years to stream many studio films. A few media firms refuse to sell any streaming rights at all.而最糟糕的是,Netflix忽略了一个极其重要的战略优势。DVD光碟或许是老式媒介,但是它们有着强力的法律保护措施。当一张DVD光碟从好莱坞片场发布那刻起,大概只要在电影院上映后四个月,Netflix就可以开始租售。相比之下,如果Netflix要通过互联网来播放流媒体电影,则必须先和持有它的片场或电视公司签订协议。随着Netflix变得越来越有钱,越来越胆小,协商日趋困难。公司必须要等到8到9年才能播放许多片场的流媒体电影,一些媒体公司更是拒绝出售任何播放流媒体的权利。When Netflix combined DVDs and streaming, it offered both a vast selection of up-to-date content and the prospect of instant gratification. By forcing customers to choose between the two, it has revealed the weaknesses of both of its offerings. Netflix isnt like the Albanian army—it is far more dangerous than that. But it seems to have trained its guns against itself.在Netflix将DVD光碟与流媒体电影电视两种务结合在一起时,它不仅提供了大量可选购的最新内容,而且很容易使用户感到满意。然而Netflix强迫用户其二而择一的行为,将两者的弱点都暴露了出来。Netflix其实并不像阿尔巴尼亚军队——毕竟他们危险多了。但是这回,看起来他们是把口对准了自己。 /201301/219920

Vincent had found a room up here in Montmartre.文森特在蒙马特找到了一个房间。Montmartre means the hill of martyrs, and a martyr is definitely what he now fancied himself to be.蒙马特意味着烈士之山,而他现在绝对认为自己是位烈士。He spent every evening up in that little room, ing the Bible and praying feverishly.他每天晚上的时间都花在那个小房间里,阅读圣经和狂热祈祷。Get rid of all your books, he wrote to Theo, and keep only the Bible.扔掉你所有的书,他写信给西奥,只保留《圣经》。Goupil employees were expected to work over Christmas.葛普丽员工会在圣诞节期间工作。It was the busiest selling period of the year.这是一年中最繁忙的销售旺季。But without telling anybody, Vincent bunked off at Christmas that year and spent it in Holland with his family.但是没有告诉任何人,文森特在圣诞节那一年没有工作,在荷兰与他的家人相聚。When he returned to Paris, he was summoned into the boss’s office and asked to resign.当他返回巴黎,他被叫到老板的办公室,要求辞职。Goupils gave him three months notice which was generous of them.葛普丽给了他三个月观察期以显示公司的慷慨。Vincent had been ing the English papers in Paris, looking through the classifieds for a job.而文森特在巴黎一直读英文报纸,通过分类找寻工作。 注:听力文本来源于普特 201208/194529Tapping Caterpillars毛虫的敲击声Y: I could have sworn that I heard a strange tapping sound in my house last night. It was faint but chilling. I think there must be a ghost in my house.我发誓昨天晚上在家里我听到了很奇怪的敲打声。那个声音微弱至极,但就是让人毛骨悚然。我家里是不是有鬼啊!D: Do you happen to keep caterpillars, perhaps the hook-tip moth?该不会你正好养了毛虫,或是钩翅蛾吧?Y:Why? Yes, I do. I have several little creatures. But what does that have to do with that tapping noise I heard?啊?嗯,我有养。我养了很多小动物。但那跟我晚上听到的声音有什么关系呢?D:That noise probably came from your caterpillars, and it probably means one of them invaded anothers territory.那个声音很可能就是你养的小毛虫发出的。很有可能是一只小虫闯进了另一只的领地。Y:I didnt know caterpillars were territorial.我都不知道毛虫还有领地呢!D:Well, it turns out some are. In fact, whats odd is that the hook-tip moths territorial behavior is much like that of many vertebrates, not what youd expect in an organism like a caterpillar. These caterpillars find themselves a good leaf, and then they construct a nest of silk to protect them while they feast. When another caterpillar intrudes upon the resident caterpillars territory, the resident caterpillar stops eating, retreats into its nest, and it makes tapping noises by dragging or striking its mandibles against the leaf.呃,有的是这样的。事实上,奇怪的是,钩翅蛾的占地行为更像是脊椎动物,并不像是你所想像的蛾类的占地行为。这些毛虫为自己找到一片好叶子,然后用丝筑一个巢。在毛虫“用餐”的时候,这个巢就可以起到保护作用。当另一只毛虫闯入该毛虫的领地时,“原住民”会立即停下用餐,退回巢内,借助拖拽鄂骨或是用鄂骨敲击叶子发出敲击声,以此威胁入侵者。Y:What does the intruder do?那么,入侵者又会怎么做呢?D:Often the intruder makes the sound as well and may end up attacking the residents nest by biting through some of the silk strands. Caterpillars dont make this noise anywhere but in the nest, and scientists say this behavior suggests that the rivals are sizing each other up. They also suggest that the sounds may function to attract the attention of predators, in which case the intruder would be rather defenseless.通常情况下,入侵者同样也会制造出敲击声,到最后会咬掉“原住民”巢内的部分丝线。毛虫只会在巢内发出这样的声音。科学家指出,这是双方在衡量对方的实力。同时,还指出,这种声音还会吸引来食肉动物,在这样的情况下,入侵者在防御上就会处于明显的弱势。 /201301/221798If theres any one thing that really separates humans from most other animals, its our ability to get funky. Whens the last time you saw a lion, or a giraffe, or even a chimpanzee, do the Funky Chicken or the Electric Slide? But there is one other species that can hold its own on the dance floor—birds.如果真有一件事情能将人类与其它大多数动物区分开来的话,那就是人类具有跳舞的能力。你什么时候看到过一头狮子,或者一只长颈鹿,甚至是一个大猩猩在跳小鸡舞或者滑步舞?然而有一种动物——鸟类能够拥有自己的舞池。A few studies have shown that some parrots and cockatoos can bob their heads and sway in time to music. Do a YouTube search for “dancing birds” and see for yourself.几项研究表明,有些鹦鹉和凤头鹦鹉会合着音乐节拍摇头晃脑,左右摇摆。在 YouTube 上搜索“跳舞鸟”,你就会亲眼看到。So why are birds rhythmically endowed and not, say, chimps, our closest animal relatives? Probably because birds, unlike chimps, but like people, can mimic sounds. When a parrot squawks out a human phrase or impersonates a sound effect, its doing two things: processing the sound it hears, and monitoring the sound it makes in imitation.为什么鸟类被赋予了韵律感,而与人类亲缘最近的黑猩猩却没有?也许是因为鸟类能像人类一样模仿声音,而黑猩猩则不能。当一只鹦鹉粗声模仿人们说话或者一个声音效果时,会做两件事:首先,处理听到的声音;其次,监测模仿时发出的声音。Something similar goes on when we dance—we hear the music, and also somehow coordinate our bodies to move in time to it. In fact,scientists speculate that humans evolved the ability to dance as a by product of learning to speak by imitating sounds. Or maybe dancing evolved alongside sound mimicry. In any case, its interesting that the only animals besides humans that can dance are birds that mimic sound. It suggests that the two traits are related.人们跳舞的过程也类似——听到音乐,然后以某种方式协调身体跟上节拍。实际上科学家们推测,人类通过模仿声音而学习说话衍生出了一个副产品——跳舞的能力。或许,跳舞是伴随着声音模仿一同进化的。无论如何,除了人类之外能跳舞的动物只有模仿声音的鸟类,这听起来很有趣。这表明模仿声音和跳舞这两个特征是有联系的。原文译文属!201211/210828

Cancer genetics癌症遗传学Gene therapy基因疗法Genetic mutations predict which cancers will respond to treatment基因突变将预测某种治疗会对哪些癌症起作用THE International Cancer Genome Consortium, an alliance of laboratories that is trying to produce a definitive list of the genetic mutations that cause cancer, is accumulating data at an astonishing rate. About 3,000 individual breast tumours, for example, have now had their genotypes published. But these data will not, by themselves, help patients. For that, they have to be collected in the context of a drug trial. And this is just what Matthew Ellis and his colleagues at Washington University in St Louis have done for women suffering from breast cancer. Their methods, if they prove to work for other cancers too, may revolutionise treatment.国际癌症基因组协作组(THE International Cancer Genome Consortium)是试图建立一份会引起癌症的基因突变完整清单的实验室联盟,它积累数据的速度让人吃惊。例如,它已经发表了大约3000种不同的乳房肿瘤的基因型。但光凭这些数据本身无法帮助患者。要医治病人,人们必须结合药物试验采集数据。而这正是在圣路易斯市的华盛顿大学(Washington University in St Louis)工作的马修?埃利斯(Matthew Ellis)及其同事们为罹患乳腺癌的妇女们所作的工作。如果事实明他们的方法对其他癌症也有用的话,这可能会是癌症治疗的一次革命。Dr Ellis and his team sequenced the whole genomes of both cancerous and normal tissue from 46 women with tumours of a type called oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. They also sequenced just the gene-containing regions of the genome-about 1% of total DNA-from an additional 31 women, and parts of the sequences of 240 more. They then compared the healthy and tumorous genomes of each patient, in order to discover which genes had mutated in the cancer.埃利斯士及其团队对46名身患雌激素受体阳性乳腺癌的妇女的癌组织和正常组织进行了全基因组测序。他们也对另外31名病人的基因组中含有基因的那些区域(约占整个DNA的1%)进行了测序,并对其他240名病人的这些部分做了部分测序。此后,为找出癌细胞中哪些基因发生了突变,他们比较了每个病人的健康和癌变基因组。In this, they were following the normal protocol of the cancer genome consortium. The novelty of their approach was that the women in question had each been involved in one of two clinical trials of a drug called letrozole. These trials established letrozole as a standard treatment for people with this type of breast cancer, but not all patients benefit equally from the drug. Dr Ellis hoped to find out why.他们在这一工作中是按癌症基因组协作组的标准程序操作的,但其方法的新颖之处是,他们还同时进行一种名为来曲唑的药物的临床试验。该试验有两种,每个病人都接受其中的一种。这些试验实来曲唑是这类乳腺癌的标准治疗方法,但它对每个病人的疗效并不一样。埃利斯士希望找出其原因。As they report in Nature, he and his team discovered 18 genes that were often mutated. Some were the usual suspects of cancer genetics. These included p53, a gene that, when working properly, suppresses cancer by regulating DNA repair, cell division and cellular suicide, and MAP3K1 and MAP2K4, which both promote cell growth. Others, though, were a surprise. At the top of that list were five which had previously been linked to leukaemia, but were not thought to affect solid tumours.正如他们在《自然》杂志中所报告的那样,埃利斯和他的团队发现了18种经常发生突变的基因,其中有些是癌症遗传学通常怀疑的对象。这中间包括p53,这种基因在正常工作时通过调节DNA对的修复、细胞分裂和细胞自杀来抑制癌症;还有MAP3K1和MAP2K4,它们都能促进细胞生长。但也有些令人吃惊的其他结果。高踞名单前列的5种基因是人们过去认为与白血病有关的,没想到它们也会影响实体瘤。By combining their newly acquired genetic data with clinical data from the participants, Dr Ellis and his colleagues showed that those whose tumours carried mutations in p53 (16% of the total) were less likely to have responded to letrozole than women whose tumours had normal p53. Conversely, those whose tumours had changes in either MAP3K1 or MAP2K4 (another 16%) had better than average responses to the drug.将他们新得到的基因数据与参与试验者的临床数据结合,埃利斯士等人明了,来曲唑对肿瘤中有p53基因突变的病人(占总数的16%)的疗效不如对肿瘤中p53基因正常的病人那样显著。与此相反,这一药物对肿瘤中MAP3K1或MAP2K4有变化的病人(也占总数的16%)的疗效高于平均水平。This sort of information has obvious implications for treatment. And the cheapness of modern gene-sequencing methods, particularly those that are looking for specific mutations suspected in advance, means that a tumours mutational complement can be worked out easily in an appropriately equipped pathology laboratory. In the case of oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer, the genetic analysis has not yet gone so far as to be able to say with certainty which drug will produce the best result for a given individual, but Dr Elliss result lays a foundation on which such an edifice might be built for breast cancer and perhaps for other types of tumour, too.这种信息对治疗的含义是明显的。而且,现代基因测序法价格低廉,寻找预先已有怀疑的某些特别的基因突变尤为便宜;这意味着,在拥有合适装备的病理实验室里,人们可以很容易地找出肿瘤基因突变的补体。就雌激素受体阳性乳腺癌来说,基因分析还无法肯定地告诉我们,哪种药物对某个病人疗效最佳;但埃利斯士的结果打下了一个基础,或许可以在此之上为乳腺癌——甚至其他种类的癌症——的治疗建立有效的预测方法。 201207/192630

Books and Arts; Book Review;Rehabilitating capitalism文艺;书评;振兴资本主义For those who have lost faith只为重建信心Why Capitalism? By Allan Meltzer.《为何是资本主义?》作者:Allan MeltzerA Capitalism for the People: Recapturing the Lost Genius of American Prosperity. By Luigi Zingales.《为人民的资本主义:重拾美国繁荣时期消失的天才》作者:Luigi ZingalesThe financial crisis has led some people to question the viability of America’s economic system. Socialism’s appeal has faded in Russia and China, and to a degree in other countries that once were its champions, such as India and Cuba. But American-style capitalism has not had an easy time of it either. Crashing financial markets, bank bail-outs and high unemployment have all added to a growing sense of unease about a system that is based on private ownership of resources.当前这场金融危机让人不由得开始质疑美国经济体系的可行性。社会主义的光环在俄罗斯和中国已逐渐褪去,甚至在像印度和古巴这样一度全权拥护社会主义的国家,它也早已不再神圣无比。但美式资本主义过的也并不轻松。不断崩溃的金融市场,紧急财政援助,再加上居高不下的失业率,这都导致人们对这一建立在资源私有基础上的经济体制倍感不安。“Why Capitalism?” by Allan Meltzer, a professor of economics at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, is an extended response to some of the calls he has received in recent years. The most thought-provoking came from a woman in Germany who, after ing the New York Times, wondered if, only two decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall, she was actually witnessing the implosion of the system that brought it down.《为何是资本主义?》的作者Allan Meltzer是匹兹堡的卡耐基·梅隆大学的一名经济学教授,该书主要是对他这几年收到的咨询电话做出的扩展回复。最发人深省的电话来自一名德国女士,她在看完纽约时报后,不由深思,当初正是资本主义推倒了柏林墙,如今柏林墙倒塌才20年,她是否就已经在亲临这一体制的逐渐崩溃。Capitalism’s core defence, Mr Meltzer argues, is that it is the only system that leads to freedom and economic growth. It is less good at ensuring virtue or stability; failure is an inherent part. Indeed the author’s observation that “capitalism without failure is like religion without sin. It doesn’t work well,” has aly been widely circulated. However, the sins attributed to capitalism—corruption, fraud and greed, to name but three—are not only pervasive in systems where the state controls production, but far more damaging and far less likely to be rectified.Meltzer指出资本主义的最核心优势在于它是唯一能够带来自由和经济增长的制度。这一体系并不能保道德常驻和社会稳定,所以失败崩溃是在所难免的。事实上,本书作者曾说过,“不失败的资本主义就好比没有原罪的宗教,发挥不了什么作用。”这一观点已广为流传。但是,资本主义带来的罪恶—腐败,欺诈和贪婪,在此仅列举这三样—不仅在政府控制生产的体制里蔚然成风,其危害性也非常大,并且并不好修正。The main problem, he argues, is that even nominally capitalist systems have, for better and worse, elements of state control. These often begin with defence and the police, and go on to national transport systems, which leads, in America’s case, to an ever-expanding network of bureaus and agencies. Much of bureaucracy is adopted under the rationale of enhancing “fairness”. But, as Mr Meltzer notes, fairness often means providing present benefits using debt that must be repaid by taxpayers in the future (which is hardly fair) or through regulations and subsidies created by people in government who then go on to exploit them in private-sector jobs (which is also unfair).Meltzer认为主要的问题在于即使是名义上的资本主义系统,无论好坏,统统都是有政府控制成分的。政府控制一般先从国家机器①着手,再扩展到交通运输系统,最后再像美国那样蔓延至不断扩大中的官僚机构网。很多官僚主义是在“增强公平”的正当理由下得以滋生。但是,Meltzer认为公平通常意味着用债务带来现时效益,但这些债务将来必须由纳税人偿还(其实这并不公平);或者是通过政府人员制定的规章和津贴带来现时效益,而这些人随后便在私营部门剥削纳税人(这也是不公平的)。It is this last issue that forms the heart of “A Capitalism for the People” by Luigi Zingales, a professor at the University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business. Mr Zingales has written an elegy to the America he found when he moved there 24 years ago from an Italy that was rife with nepotism. Italian businesses preferred to stay small and discreet. Growing bigger made them vulnerable to scrutiny and would require them to hire people on the basis of talent rather than loyalty; and loyalty was important because it, once again, helped protect the firm from scrutiny.《为人民的资本主义》一书最后一个话题也正是该书的中心思想,书的作者是芝加哥大学布斯商学院的Luigi Zingales教授。24年前,Zingales从裙带关系泛滥的意大利来到美国,该书正是Zingales为当时他所见的美国写的一曲挽歌。在意大利,公司一般都喜欢小规模运作谨慎周密地运作。扩大公司规模会让他们更容易经不起监管,还要求他们得根据能力选人而非忠诚度,但是忠诚度又极其重要,因为正是员工的忠诚才让他们经得住详细盘查。Arriving in America, Mr Zingales found an enthusiasm for capitalism. Americans believed that it was possible to become rich and that increasing wealth benefited the poor as well as the not so poor. They regarded their capitalist system as fair—or at least fair enough. All of those sentiments, says Mr Zingales, have been eroded.刚到美国,Zingales看到的是对资本主义的狂热。美国人坚信,致富是可能的,并且财富的增加对穷对富都是有益无害的。他们认为自己的资本主义系统是公正的,不是绝对公正至少也是足够公正的。Zingales说到,所有的这种狂热情绪已消失殆尽。Much of the change is a direct result of the vast expansion of the state through complex subsidies and anti-competitive regulations that invite the sort of cronyism that Mr Meltzer cites as well. When government favours the private sector, Mr Zingales argues, it is all too often by being “pro-business” rather than “pro-market”, meaning that favourable conditions are provided to particular institutions rather than to institutions broadly. This distorts the system, resulting in precisely the problem of select companies making profits while imposing costs on society that Mr Meltzer argues is at the core of what regulation should be designed to prevent.大部分变化多是国家权力扩张的直接后果,国家通过复杂的津贴和反竞争规章来扩张权力的,而这种扩张带来的是任人唯亲的风气,这在Meltzer的书中也有提到。Meltzer认为,当政府说持私营企业时,往往是持“企业”而非持“市场”,也就是说政府是为某些企业机构提供持,而非广泛持所有企业机构。这一行为扭曲了该系统,恰恰导致精英公司得利却让社会承担代价的后果,Meltzer认为这一问题正是制定出的规章应该避免的核心问题。Mr Zingales makes three proposals. Protected sectors, notably education and health care, should be opened up to competition. Tax policy should be changed in two ways. First, it should be used to make subsidies and their costs more transparent. The deduction on mortgages, for example, should be termed a tax on renting; the lavish benefits provided for ethanol production should be regarded as a tax on petrol. Secondly it should be used as a substitute for complicated regulation and applied against areas that cost society, such as pollution and (because it creates instability) the use of short-term debt by banks.Meltzer提出三个解决方案。受国家保护的部门,特别是教育和医疗,应该对外开放,接受竞争。税收政策应该在两方面做出改变。首先,应该利用税收政策来让津贴和津贴来源变得更透明。比如,按揭贷款扣除应该叫做租赁税;乙醇生产带来的丰厚利润应该被冠以汽油税。其次,税收政策该被用来代替复杂的规章,并且用在对让社会承受巨大代价的领域,比如环境污染和短期债务的使用(因为它会造成社会不稳)。More broadly, Mr Zingales wants a closer, explicit, tie between capitalism and morality. He wants to extend the public shaming of corporate crooks to people who take actions that are legal, but damaging to society, such as borrowers who walk away from mortgages merely because their value exceeds the value of the underlying property. Business schools, Mr Zingales says, are ideally positioned to point out when an action that provides a benefit for an individual comes at a cost to society, but in reality they rarely bother. This, he believes, is part of the same malaise that has befallen the political debate on capitalism, which has been taken over by special interests and people who have no faith in a real market-based system. For all America’s success, he warns, Washington is on a trajectory that leads to Rome.更广泛地说,Zingales期盼的是拉近并明确资本主义和道德之间的关系。他想要扩大舆论压力,要大家不仅耻于骗子企业,还要耻于行为合法但却危害社会的人,比如一些借款人,仅因为自身价值超越了作为基础产业的房地产的价值而逃避按揭付款。Zingales还指出,当个人以社会为代价获得利益时,商学院理念上要指出这样的行径,但在现实中,它们却对此不闻不问。Zingales相信,这和政治上对资本主义的争论都是一种病态,资本主义已不再是争论热点,取而代之的是对特别利益团体和那些根本就不相信真正市场导向体制的人的热议。尽管美国是成功的,但Zingales警告到,华盛顿正在重蹈罗马的覆辙。201207/192129Dear Annie:I live alone with my five cats. Four years ago, my youngest son brought his girlfriend, ;Emily,; for a visit. Emily told me she was allergic to cats and needed a cat-free bedroom, so I gave her mine. My son occupied the other bedroom, which left me on the couch.亲爱的安妮:我一个人居住,只有五只猫相伴。四年前,我最小的儿子带他的女朋友艾米丽回家。艾米丽告诉我说她对猫过敏,需要一间没有猫的卧室,因此我把我的卧室给她了。我的儿子占了另一间卧室,剩下我睡在沙发上。When I realized that Emily had no symptoms, I suspected she wasnt really allergic. But I bit my tongue and was a courteous hostess. The last night of their visit, we went out to a restaurant. Emily didnt offer to pay for my meal, which I thought was rude.当我意识到艾米丽没有出现任何症状,我开始怀疑她不是真的过敏。但是为了做个有礼貌的女主人,我没有说破她。他们拜访的最后一天,我们去了饭店。艾米丽没有为我买单,我感觉她的行为很无礼。Two years ago, Emily finally admitted shes not allergic to cats. Unfortunately, my son married her and I am still seething over that visit. I know I should let this go, but I dont like being lied to and shes such a tightwad.-Fuming in the Southwest两年前,艾米丽最终承认了她对猫并不过敏。不幸的是,我的儿子娶了她,而我始终对那次见面耿耿于怀。我知道我应该让它过去,但我不喜欢被欺骗,而且她又是这样一个吝啬鬼。 ——来自西南的Fuming。Dear Fuming:Please let it go. Emily admitted she wasnt allergic, so the lie was to get her own bedroom-which your son, not you, should have offered. As for the tightwad label, were not so sure. Many young people are unaware of the etiquette that says you should treat your hosts to a meal.亲爱的Fuming:过去的事就让它过去吧。艾米丽承认她没有过敏,那么她说谎就是为了一间卧室,这应该由你儿子提供,而不是你。 至于“吝啬鬼”标签,我们不太确定。许多年轻人都不知道“客人应该请主人吃饭”这个礼节。You are being exceptionally harsh. Find something to like about Emily before you destroy your relationship with your son.你把事情看得严重了。在你和你儿子的关系恶化之前,找一些关于艾米丽的好处,去试着喜欢她。原文译文属!201208/196524When it comes to evidence, the camera doesnt lie. Over the years , law enforcement here in Seattle has used cameras and their police cruisers to show proof of a crime of just a document proper procedure. But now city council member Bruce Harro wants to exploit the possibility of placing the sturdily-art cameras on the officers themselves.说到取,没有什么能比摄像机更确凿的了,多年来,西雅图的执法机关使用固定监控摄像和警察巡逻来作为法律取的主要手段。但现在,议会议员Bruce Harro提出,可以考虑在警务人员身上安放摄像头。;I believe that this is the way of the future. That we are in a technology age, its a good way to establish a good record on whats happening out there.;“我相信这是未来取执法的必然趋势。现在是视频技术飞速发展的时代,用录像来明‘发生过什么’是再好不过的方法了。”In a special meeting today at city hall. Two separate companies, Viview and Taser International made their pitch to demonstrate the latest on-person camera technologies. The cost, anywhere from 900$ up to 1,700$ per unit. But not everyone is sold on the idea.在今天市政大厅的会议室,两家公司,Viview和Taser International分别展示了现代放置人体身上的最新的摄像技术。每套设备造价900美元到1千7百美元不等。因此,并不是所有人都赞同这一想法。;You are talking about millions of dollars of investment on technology, whats the cost benefit analysis in a large organization?;“在人身上安置摄像装备意味着上百万的经济开销,”;And you dont have the answer to that yet.;“因此您现在还没有结论。”;I do not have the answer to that.;“是的,我现在还不能下任何定论。”;I believed last year Seattle probably spent around 16 million dollars just handling over 1,400 complaints that were made against the officers. And in studies weve seen both domestically and internationally. Weve seen anywhere between 40 up to a 100 percent of reduction in complaints. ;“去年一年,西雅图政府花费了约1千6百万美元购置了1千4百多套设备并投入使用。研究表明,我们看到了该举措的国内和国际效应。我们看到西雅图各地群众的投诉减少了40%以上,甚至是100%。”Recently incidents here in Seattle have shown that can be a very powerful tool that can benefit both the officer and the citizen.最近,发生在西雅图的事件实,摄像头对执法人员和市民都有好处。;What concern you more now as we saw is the incidents out there we dont get the chance to see, we want to know whats happening out there. And say it again, if we have the technology, we should use it.;“我们使用这项技术的原因是我们需要了解真相,了解案发地点发生了什么。我要重申的是,如果我们技术上能够做到,我们应该好好利用它。”According to some police departments, body bond camera should be the way of the future. Documenting everything from the officers point of view. And the will not only help convict people, but to help cops defend themselves from allegation of rudeness or even police brutality.根据一些警局的观点,便携摄像头是将来执法的必要工具。它会从执法人员的角度拍摄下一切真相。这些录像不仅能取定罪,还能明警察是否在执法过程中又无理暴行。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201207/190108

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