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As Scots don their clan tartans in celebration of national bard Robert Burns this weekend, they may be surprised to learn they will not be the only ones. Fashion-conscious Chinese shoppers are buying more traditional Scottish clothing than ever before – from tweed suits to golfing trews.在苏格兰人本周末穿上花呢格纹装,庆祝民族诗人罗伯特#8226;彭斯(Robert Burns)的诞辰之际,他们可能会惊讶地得知,他们不是喜欢这种装风格的唯一人群。具有时尚意识的中国消费者正在购买空前数量的苏格兰传统装——从花呢西装到高尔夫格子裤。Estimates from HM Revenue amp; Customs indicate that exports of textiles from Scotland to China are about to hit a record high, after sales in the first nine months in 2013 reached nearly #163;9.7m – outstripping the total for the previous year. Scotland sells more than two and a half times more textiles to China than it did a decade ago.英国税务海关总署(HM Revenue amp; Customs)的估计表明,苏格兰对中国的纺织品出口即将创下历史新高,2013年前九个月的销售达到近970万英镑,超过上年全年总额。如今,苏格兰对华纺织品销售超过10年前的两倍半。According to the tweedmakers of the Isle of Harris, off Scotland’s west coast, the Chinese appear keen to wrap themselves in the history of the region.在苏格兰西海岸外的哈里斯岛,一些花呢格纹生产商表示,中国人似乎喜欢饱含苏格兰历史底蕴的装布料。“It’s about provenance, British [identity] and quality,” said Brian Wilson, chairman of Harris Tweed Hebrides, and a business ambassador for the UK government. “If you can tick these three boxes in China then you’ve got a good chance.”“关键在于原产地、英国(特色)和质量,”哈里斯花呢赫布里底群岛公司(Harris Tweed Hebrides)董事长、英国政府商业大使布赖恩#8226;威尔逊(Brian Wilson)表示。“如果你在中国能够做到这三点,你就有很好的机会。”Harris Tweed Hebrides is responsible for about 90 per cent of the handwoven tweed cloth made in the Outer Hebrides, and is about to secure its first Chinese fashion client. It aly provides tweed upholstery to Chinese customers – by supplying the UK furniture maker Tetrad, which shipped its first products to China this month.在外赫布里底群岛出产的手工编织花呢布料中,哈里斯公司占大约90%,该公司即将争取到首家中国时装客户。它已经向中国客户提供用于家具的斜纹软呢——通过向英国家具制造商Tetrad供货,后者本月向中国发运首批产品。Johnstons of Elgin, a wool and cashmere clothing maker based in the northern Scottish city, exported #163;200,000-worth of goods to China last year. “What the Chinese absolutely love is the history and heritage that some of the companies have,” said Ian Pryde, Johnstons’ export sales director. “Johnstons now is 215 years old. The Chinese love that.” The company recently appointed agents in Beijing and Shanghai to secure more business.在苏格兰北方城市埃尔金,羊毛和羊绒装制造商Johnstons去年向中国出口了20万英镑的产品。“中国人绝对喜欢的是一些企业蕴含的历史和传统,”Johnstons公司的出口销售总监伊恩#8226;普莱德(Ian Pryde)表示。“Johnstons是一家有215年历史的老企业。中国人喜爱这一点。”该公司最近在北京和上海任命了代理商,以争取更多业务。For newer manufacturers, however, the challenge is establishing their brands in the face of competition from Chinese copycats. On a trade visit to Beijing in March last year, Glasgow-based fashion designer Rebecca Torres found that buyers “were really into kilts and tartan trousers.” But she also discovered several Chinese suppliers with names that sounded surprisingly Scottish.不过,对于成立不久的制造商来说,挑战在于面对中国模仿者的竞争确立自己的品牌。去年3月,格拉斯哥时装设计师丽贝卡#8226;托雷斯(Rebecca Torres)在北京进行贸易访问时发现,买家“对苏格兰短裙和格子呢长裤真的很感兴趣”。但她也发现几家中国供应商的名称听上去颇具苏格兰特色。One way Chinese fashionistas have been able to ensure the authenticity of their clothes is by travelling closer to the source. Roubi L’Roubi, creative director of Huntsman of Savile Row – once the tailor to King Edward VIII – has found that customers from Asia are visiting the London shop specifically to order tweed suits. “Some people want to get things from the origin,” he said. “They want to know how it’s woven and where. They’re curious.”中国时尚人士确保装来源正宗的方式之一是亲自前往接近产地的地方。在伦敦萨维尔街,曾是爱德华八世的裁缝的亨斯迈公司(Huntsman)的创意总监Roubi L#39; Roubi发现,亚洲客户专门到这家伦敦商店订购花呢西装。“有些人希望从产地获得产品,”他表示。“他们想知道它是如何编织的,在什么地方做出来的。他们很好奇。” /201401/274430HIRADO, Japan — Tax breaks come in many forms. Charitable gifts. Health care expenses. Mortgage interest payments.日本平户市——税收优惠政策有各种各样的形式。比如慈善礼品、医疗费用和抵押贷款的利息付。In this small fishing village, they come in a cooler.在这座小渔村,则是装在冰盒里送出的。It is part of the great tax giveaway happening across Japan.它是日本各地正在实施的大规模减税的一部分。Taxpayers who donate money to Hirado get a nice deduction and a shipment of slipper lobsters, spiral-shelled mollusks and oysters.给平户市捐钱的纳税人能够享受到不错的减免政策,还能得到琵琶虾、螺类和牡蛎。Don’t like seafood? Hirado has hundreds of other thank-you gifts, like a monthly vegetable delivery, a fold-up electric bike or a wedding photo shoot with formal wear and hotel stay included.不喜欢海鲜?平户另外还准备了数百种答谢礼物,比如每月递送的蔬菜、折叠式电动自行车,或者包含正装和酒店住宿的婚纱摄影。Donors — 36,000 in one year — now outnumber residents.目前,捐赠者人数已经超过了居民,一年内达到3.6万人。“I think of them as neo-citizens,” said Hirado’s mayor, Naruhiko Kuroda.平户市市长黑田稔彦(Naruhiko Kuroda,音)说,“我视他们为新市民。”Exploiting a quirk in the country’s tax system, scores of towns with dwindling populations are supplementing revenue by courting outside donors. The result is a sort of adopt-a-forest program for rural communities — albeit one where the forest reciprocates with gifts.数十座人口不断减少的城镇,正在利用日本税收系统的一个特点,通过招揽外部捐赠者增加收益。结果就产生了某种针对农村社区的认领树木项目——只不过这里代替树木的是礼品。Local governments are offering things as diverse as marbled Wagyu beef and hot-spring vacations. Last month one city in central Japan, Bizen, attracted 56 million yen with a deal on tablet computers.当地政府提供了多种多样的东西,其中包括有大理石般色纹理的神户牛肉和温泉度假游。上个月,位于日本中部的城市备前用平板电脑吸引了5600万日元(约合281万元人民币)。The tablets were available for a donation of 100,000 yen, or about 0. After the tax rebate, the cost to donors was just 2,000 yen.只要捐助10万日元,就可获得平板电脑。减税之后,捐助者的花费仅为2000日元。This year, Japan sweetened the tax benefits. The government views it as a way of addressing stubborn wealth disparities between cities and the countryside.今年,日本加大了税收优惠的力度。政府将其视为应对令人头疼的城乡财富差异的一种方式。Critics, though, say the system has come untethered from its initial purpose, which was to allow city dwellers to support their ancestral towns. The system is known as furusato nozei, or “hometown taxation.” But there is no requirement that donors have any connection to the places, and today few actually do.不过,批评人士称,这套名为“故乡税”(furusato nozei)制度已经偏离了最初目的,即让城市居民为他们的家乡提供持。但是,政府不要求捐赠者与受捐赠的地方有任何关系,而且目前很少有人真的与这些地方有关。The cost of thank-you gifts is also rising steadily as local governments compete to attract patrons — leaving less to spend on civic projects. Urban areas, where most donors live, end up bearing the cost, according to Takero Doi, a professor at Keio University, since donors’ tax write-offs subtract from other cities’ revenue. “Ultimately, it’s a zero-sum game.”在地方政府争相吸引捐款者的同时,礼品的成本也在不断上升,这导致了市政工程出的减少。庆应义塾大学(Keio University)教授土居丈朗(Takero Doi)说,捐款的成本最终由大多数捐款者生活的城市地区承担,由于对捐款者的减税会导致其他城市的收入减少,“这终究是一场零和弈。”Playing the game has been a boon for Hirado.但这场弈却让平户市受益无穷。The town’s heyday was four centuries ago, when it was a bustling trading hub that drew cloth and silver merchants from as far away as Europe. Today it has a cluster of aging tourist hotels, built by overly hopeful developers in the 1970s and ’80s, that sit mostly empty. The population has dropped by half since the 1950s.这座城市的最鼎盛时期是在四个世纪前,它当时是一座繁忙的贸易中心,吸引着远及欧洲的布料和银器商人。如今,这座城市里还有大量老旧的旅游酒店,它们都是上世纪70和80年代的开发商盲目乐观的结果,目前几乎闲置。自从上世纪50年代以来,平户市的人口已经减少了一半。While Hirado began accepting donations soon after the program began in 2008, it only recently started to earn serious money. Taking cues from online shopping, it set up a website where donors can choose gifts and a point system to claim rewards. It takes a donation of 10,000 yen, or , to get the seafood delivery.平户市在2008年项目启动之后就开始接受捐款了,但直到最近才收到一些大笔的捐赠。受到网络购物的启发,平户市设立了一个网站和积分系统,捐款者可以在网站上选择礼物,并通过积分系统要求获得奖励。捐款达1万日元就可以获赠海鲜礼包。The town earned 1.46 billion yen in donations in its latest fiscal year, which ended in March, or about million — 7 percent of its annual budget. That was the most of any local government in Japan.这座城市在3月份结束的最新财年获得了14.6亿日元的捐款,相当于年度预算的7%,这个数字居日本各地方政府之首。Some taxpayers are enjoying a windfall, too.一些纳税人也尝到了甜头。“My wife saw something about it on TV and said it would be a good way to save on taxes,” said Shigeki Kanamori, a wealthy real estate developer in Tokyo.“我妻子在电视上看到的,她说这是节约税费的好办法,”富裕的东京房地产开发商金森茂树(Shigeki Kanamori,音)说。Mr. Kanamori gave 3 million yen, or ,000, to a total of about 200 municipalities. In return, he received gifts worth roughly half that amount. Out of pocket, the haul cost him just 2,000 yen, about the price of lunch at a Tokyo restaurant.金森茂树向大约200个地方捐了300万日元。作为回报,他获得了价值相当于这个数额一半的礼物。最后算下来,这些东西总共花了他2000日元,相当于在东京的餐厅吃一顿午餐。“My biggest problem is that my refrigerator’s full,” he said. He has written a book about where to find the best deals.“我最大的问题是冰箱满了,”金森茂树说。他还写了本书,介绍怎样找到最划算的捐赠项目。Mr. Kanamori expects to do even better this year. The government doubled the upper limit on tax deductions on April 1, to 20 percent of the value of the donor’s municipal tax bill. That, combined with increasingly assertive soliciting, could spur a big increase in donations, which hit 14 billion yen nationwide last year, about 3 million.金森茂树估计今年的情况还会更好。4月1日,政府把税收减免的上限提高了一倍,增至捐赠者市政税务账单价值的20%。再加上越来越坚定的索捐呼声,可能会推动捐款数额的大幅度增加。去年,全国的捐款数额达到了140亿日元。Some are concerned that the escalating extravagance of the thank-you gifts could hurt public support for the initiative.有人担心,越来越昂贵的答谢礼物会损害公众对这项政策的持。“We want this to be a permanent fixture of the tax system, not just a kind of short-lived festival,” said Mr. Kuroda, the Hirado mayor. “I’m happy about our success, but I’m also worried.”“我们希望它能成为税收制度的一个固定部分,而不仅仅是一个短期计划,”平户市市长黑田稔彦说。“我对我们的成功感到高兴,但我同时也很担心。”Hirado’s gifts cost the city a little less than half the money it receives, Mr. Kuroda said. All are from local producers, he said, for an additional economic boost.黑田稔彦说,平户市的礼物所用的花费,略低于它所获得的资金的一半。他说,这些礼物均由当地生产商提供,从而能额外促进经济发展。But some towns are pouring 70 or 80 percent of the value of donations back into thank-you gifts, and are less focused on using local goods. The Ministry of Internal Affairs, which supervises local governments, recently issued a directive calling for “self-restraint” in the selection of gifts.但是,有些城镇把所获捐赠的70%或80%都用在了答谢礼物上,而且也不太坚持使用当地商品。管理地方政府的总务省(Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications)近日发布了一项命令,呼吁各政府在挑选礼物时进行“自律”。Defenders of the system say its merits more than make up for its flaws.该制度的维护者称,它的好处足以弥补其缺陷。Japan’s regions aly depend heavily on outside subsidies — like revenue transfers from the central government, farm supports and public spending on rural roads and bridges. Much of the money is opaquely handled and poorly spent, experts say.日本的一些地区已经十分依赖外部的补贴——比如中央政府下拨的资金、农业补贴,以及农村用于修建道路和桥梁的公共出。专家称,很大一部分钱是暗箱操作,而且没有妥善出。In contrast, furusato nozei is more personal and transparent, according to supporters. Recipients provide a list of proposed uses for donors’ money upfront and let them choose which ones to pay for. Hideo Kishimoto, the mayor of Genkai, said the competition it fostered was healthy and was spurring local innovation.持者说,相比之下,“故乡税”更加个性化和透明。接收者列出一个如何使用捐款的项目清单,让捐款者自己选择为哪项用途投钱。玄海町长岸本英雄(Hideo Kishimoto)说,它所引发的竞争是有益的,激发了当地的创新。“It’s like crowdfunding,” he said. Popular causes include child care subsidies and computers for local schools.“这就像是众筹,”他说。受欢迎的项目包括保育补贴和为当地中小学购置电脑。Takayuki Fukuoka, an asparagus farmer in Hirado, said he was earning about 30 percent of his income from gift requests. He said he hoped the program would open farmers’ eyes to new ways of marketing their produce, instead of relying on the monopolistic wholesale system that dominates Japanese agriculture.在平户种植芦笋的农民福冈孝行(Takayuki Fukuoka,音)说,他30%的收入来自赠送答谢礼物产生的需求。他说,希望该项目可以让农民们发现营销作物的更多办法,不再只是依靠在日本农业占主导地位的垄断性批发系统。“This has been a very closed-off place until now,” he said.“迄今为止,这一直是一块封闭的领域,”他说。Hirado town officials keep innovating. They are working on a smartphone-based system that would turn reward points into a virtual currency donors could spend at local businesses.平户市的官员还在不断创新。他们正在开发一个基于智能手机的系统,让捐款者可以把积分转换成能在当地商家使用的虚拟货币。“We know we won’t be on top forever,” said Mr. Kuroda. “We have to get people invested in Hirado, and strengthen the Hirado brand.”“我们知道我们不会永远领先,”黑田稔彦说。“我们必须为平户投资人力,强化平户的这个品牌。” /201506/378548

The of the fatal shooting of an unarmed black man by a white police officer in South Carolina is seen by some advocates of police reform as evidence of the rising power of technological weapons in their fight.在一些警务改革的倡导者看来,一段记录了发生在南卡罗来纳州一名白人警官开击毙一名手无寸铁的黑人男性的视频, 可以用来印科技武器在争取警务改革的斗争中开始起到越来越大的作用。That includes the smartphone camera, and with it, a growing number of apps produced by activists that streamline the process of capturing and broadcasting s of police interacting with citizens.这包括了智能手机和伴随着智能手机兴起的许许多多的应用程序,活动分子们开发的这些应用程序可以将记录和传播警民互动视频的流程变得很简单。“A lot of times, until these s show up, the officer is going to walk,” said Darren Baptiste, the creator of Cop Watch, an iPhone app that automatically begins recording when you tap its icon and automatically uploads the to YouTube when the recording is stopped.“在这些视频出现之前,很多时候(打死黑人的)警察会一走了之”,一个名叫Cop Watch的iphone应用程序的开发者达伦·巴普提斯特(Darren Baptise)表示。这个应用程序在你点开程序的时候就会自动开始录像,而当录像停止的时候应用程序会自动将视频上传到YouTube。Mr. Baptiste, 47, is an app developer in Toronto, where several episodes of force by police — some of them eventually deemed unlawful — have been captured by citizens wielding cameras over the last few years. He said that when photographing the police during intense situations, people often get flustered — they may forget to hit record, or may not know how, or where, to upload a . There have also been cases in which police, sometimes in violation of the law, confiscated cameras or phones containing stored recordings.今年47岁的巴普提斯特是一名多伦多的应用程序开发者。而他所在的城市近几年有好几段由公民拿起相机拍摄视频记录了警察使用暴力的场景,其中好几起最终都被判定为非法行为。巴普提斯特说,人们在这种紧张时刻拍摄警察通常会很慌乱——很有可能会忘记按下录像键或者完全不懂如何上传视频或者去哪上传。以前也有过警察在违法的时候把围观者拍下他们违法视频的相机或者手机没收掉的情况。The app, which Mr. Baptiste created with the Network for the Elimination of Police Violence, an advocacy group based in Toronto, is meant to make recording the police easier and to make the footage less vulnerable to confiscation by the authorities. Once a user uploads a , the group is notified, and its staff can review and, if necessary, alert the news media and authorities of any apparent wrongdoing by police.这个应用程序是巴普提斯特和一个多伦多名叫“停止警察暴力网络”(Network for the Elimination of Police Violence)的倡导组织一起开发的,其目标是把拍摄记录警察变得更简单,并且让视频更难被权力机构没收。每次有用户上传视频的时候,他们的组织都会收到通知,随后就会有组织人员审查视频,在有必要的时候他们会将任何明显的警方过错通知给新闻媒体和有关权力机构。Though it is only the latest in a string of cases in which amateur photography has been used to document officers’ use of force, the South Carolina shooting demonstrates the power of citizen-captured in the most salient way. Michael T. Slager, the officer in the case, initially said that Walter L. Scott, a driver who had been stopped for a broken taillight, had taken his stun gun during a scuffle. The , captured on a cellphone by a bystander, instead showed the officer shooting Mr. Scott eight times while he ran away. On Tuesday, Mr. Slager was charged with murder.虽然这只是最近一系列非专业摄影记录警察暴力事件中的最新一次,南卡击事件还是非常明显的展现出公民拍摄视频的巨大作用。涉案警官迈克尔·T·斯雷格(Michael T. Slager) 最开始说因为驾驶汽车的尾灯破损而被他拦下的司机沃尔特·L·斯科特(Walter L. Scott)在扭打过程中掏出了手。然而一个旁观者用手机拍下的视频记录下了在斯科特逃跑过程中这名警官八次开射击当事人的场景。斯雷格警官在周二以谋杀罪名被指控。Cop Watch is one of a number of programs for smartphones aimed at helping citizens broadcast encounters with the police. In 2011, during the height of the Occupy Wall Street movement, Jason Van Anden, an artist and technologist, created “I’m Getting Arrested,” an app that could automatically send text messages to a list of prepopulated close contacts with the push of a button. Later, inspired by Mr. Van Anden’s app, the New York Civil Liberties Union developed the “Stop and Frisk Watch” app, a response to a line of policing tactics championed by then-mayor Michael Bloomberg’s administration.Cop Watch只是许许多多为了方便公民记录和传播与警方冲突场景而设计的智能手机程序之一。在2011年占领华尔街运动发展到最高峰的时候,名为杰森·凡·安顿(Jason Van Anden)的艺术家和工艺师创建了名为“我要被捕了(I’m Getting Arrested)”的应用程序,这个程序允许用户通过简单按键就可以自动发送短信给一系列提前设定好的紧密联系人名单 。随后,在凡·安顿的应用程序的启发下,纽约公民自由联盟(New York Civil Liberties Union)也开发了名为“Stop and Frisk Watch”的应用程序,作为对当时纽约市长迈克尔·布隆伯格(Michael Bloomberg)政府拥护的警务策略的响应。The N.Y.C.L.U. app allows a bystander to record from an Android-based phone or iPhone by just pressing a button on the phone’s frame. The app can send a report of a police encounter directly to the group for evaluation.纽约公民自由联盟的应用程序让路人可以从安卓手机或者苹果手机直接按下手机侧面的按键来录像,程序可以直接把与警方冲突的举报发送给公民自由联盟,由他们来进行评估。“We, sadly, thought the technology would be equally useful for young men of color in New York City,” said Jennifer Carnig, the director of communications for the N.Y.C.L.U. “Of course, in New York City if you touch your pocket to get your phone during an encounter with the police, you can end up dead.”“不幸的是,我们以为这项技术对于纽约市的有色种族年轻人也同样有用,”纽约公民自由联盟的媒体总监珍尼佛·佳妮格(Jennifer Garnig)表示。“当然,在纽约,如果你在和警方冲突过程中伸手掏口袋拿手机的话,你最后可能会丧命。”Mrs. Carnig said the app was used heavily last year during the protests surrounding the #BlackLivesMatter movement, which was spurred by the police shooting of Michael Brown, an unarmed black teenager in Ferguson, Mo.佳妮格说,去年因为美国密苏里州弗格森发生的警方击毙一名手无寸铁的黑人青年迈克尔·布朗(Michael Brown)而发起的“黑人性命也很重要”( #BlackLivesMatter)抗议示威游行活动期间,他们的应用程序有很高的使用量。The episodes also brought greater interest in police-worn body cameras, which record every police interaction with a citizen and upload the to a server, where it would be available for later review. The Obama administration has called for 3 million in funding for police departments to outfit their officers with cameras.这些事件也让公众对给警方佩戴随身相机产生了更大的兴趣,这些相机能够记录下每一次警方与公民之间的互动,并将视频上传到一个务器,可以用于随后需要的审查。奥巴马政府已经要求拨款2.63亿美元给各地警察局来为警官配备相机。At least some police advocates are comfortable, to a degree, in outfitting officers with body cameras and wearable technology to monitor police encounters with citizens. But the details of how that process might go has, in some states, has slowed overall adoption of the process.至少有些警方的持者还能够在一定程度上接受给警官们配备随身相机和可穿戴设备,用以监控警方和民众之间的冲突。但是具体到此项目的进程,有些州的配置过程还是非常缓慢。“There are privacy concerns for officers, victims and members of the community that need to be fully vetted,” said Ryan Alphin, executive director of the South Carolina Law Enforcement Officers’ Association, who is currently lobbying the state Legislature on two bills that would incorporate body camera technology into the rank-and file law enforcement agencies in the state.“有些涉及到警官、受害者和相关群体的隐私权的事务还是需要全面审查,”南卡罗来纳州执法委员协会的执行理事瑞恩·阿尔芬(Ryan Alphin)说道,他正在游说州立法机构通过两项法案,让随身相机技术普及到州内执法机构的所有普通成员。Two of the largest police departments in the country, Los Angeles and Houston, are in the early stages of deploying body cameras to all of their field officers and dozens of smaller departments are well underway in their plans.全国最大的两个警察局洛杉矶和休斯顿警局已经开始为所有出勤警官配备随身相机,许多其他小规模的警局也已经开始这项计划。Scott Greenwood, a civil rights lawyer who focuses on police misconduct and who has consulted with police departments on how to deploy cameras, said that the rise of smartphone cameras had spurred police interest in body cameras.斯科特·格林伍德(Scott Greenwood)是一名专注于警方不法行为领域的民权律师,他也和警局就如何开展配备相机的事务进行过商议,他表示智能手机相机的兴起让警方对随身相机有了很大兴趣。“Law enforcement should not hope to rely on the existence of external of witnesses,” he said. “It is best for the profession, community relations, and solid, constitutional policing to have the police departments create that record itself, and the best way to do that is on the officer.”“执法不应该寄希望于依赖外界目击者拍摄的视频。拥有警察局自己创建的视频记录对于这一职业、社区关系和强有力又符合宪法的警务都有极大的好处,而记录的最好方式就是让警官佩戴记录设备。” 格林伍德说。When it comes to citizen-captured , there are few questions regarding legality, said Mickey Osterreicher, general counsel of the National Press Photographers Association. Mr. Osterreicher said that he talked to people on a weekly basis who had been told by police to stop recording their activities. In almost all cases, the police are wrong to do so.而对于公民拍摄的视频,合法性几乎不会成为问题,美国国家摄影记者协会(National Press Photographers Association)的总顾问米基·奥斯特瑞琪(Mickey Osterreicher)表示。他说他每周都会和被警察制止拍摄警方活动过的民众进行谈话。基本上在所有这些情况中警方都没有权利这样做。“If you are in a public place, you have the right to record anything you see,” he said. “That is the First Amendment.”“只要在公共场合,你就有权记录下任何你看到的东西,这是美国宪法第一修正案规定的,” 奥斯特瑞琪说。There are exceptions for safety and for interference with police work. An officer can tell a camera-wielding bystander to step back a few feet, or to step out of a dangerous place, like a busy street. Mr. Osterreicher said that he frequently conducted training sessions with police departments on their responsibilities when being filmed.在威胁人参安全和妨碍警方执法的情况下有一些例外。警察可以让拿着相机拍摄的路人后退几英尺或者离开像繁忙的马路这杨有危险的区域。 奥斯特瑞琪说他经常为警方提供相关培训,让警官们学习自己在被拍摄情况下的责任。“The younger officers get it — they’re used to being filmed,” he said, and some also see the footage as a way to clear up any accusations of wrongdoing. “The older officers are the ones who sometimes see it as questioning their authority.”“年轻警官很理解——他们习惯被相机拍摄,”他说,而且有些年轻警官也会把录像带看成面对指控自己执法中犯错时明自己清白的方式。“年长一些的警官会觉得这是对他们权威的质疑。”So far, the Cop Watch app has not garnered evidence of police misconduct. Usage has been low. In the year that the app has been available, Mr. Baptiste said that about 2,000 people have signed in to the program, and about 1,000 s have been uploaded, most of which show people trying out the program.到目前为止,Cop Watch应用程序还没有搜集到任何警方违法行为的据。这个应用程序的使用量还很低。在应用程序推出的那年,巴普提斯特说有约2千人登陆过他们的应用程序,有约1千个视频上传,但是大部门视频都是用户对程序的测试。“This is truly one of those things that you hope people wouldn’t want to use it,” Mr. Baptiste said. “The main point of this app is to make people talk about why we have an app like this in the first place.”“这真的就是那种你不希望民众想用到的东西,”巴普提斯特说,“有这个程序的主要目的就是让大家来讨论有这种应用程序出现的原因。” /201504/369391

David Cameron, who has notoriously poor schoolboy French, is urging today#39;s youngsters to abandon the language of Molière and Voltaire to concentrate on the tongue of the future – Mandarin.众所周知,卡梅伦的法语水平相当一般。但他却呼吁英国年轻人放弃法语学习,集中精力学习“未来的语言”——汉语。In a parting shot, as he left China after a three-day visit, the prime minister said that pupils should look beyond the traditional French and German lessons and instead focus on China.卡梅伦在结束了为期三天的访华行程后表示,英国的年轻人应该打破只关注法德语学习的传统局限,今后应集中学习汉语。To reinforce his message the prime minister ed Nelson Mandela, who said learning someone else#39;s language is the best way to their heart. Cameron said: ;I want Britain linked up to the world#39;s fast-growing economies. And that includes our young people learning the languagesto seal tomorrow#39;s business deals.为了更有说力,卡梅伦还引用了南非前总统曼德拉的名言——“要了解一个国度的精神世界,最好的方法就是学习他们的语言”。卡梅伦表示:“我希望英国能紧跟世界经济发展的脚步。其中重要的一方面就是让我们的年青一代学习正在崛起的中国的语言。”;By the time the children born today leave school, China is set to be the world#39;s largest economy. So it#39;s time to look beyond the traditional focus on French and German and get many more children learning Mandarin.“等到这一代学生走出校门的时候,中国很可能已成为世界最大的经济体。所以现在是时候将注意力从传统的德法语学习转向汉语学习。”;As Mandela once said: #39;If you talk to a man in a language he understands that goes to his head, if you talk to him in his own language that goes to his heart.#39;;“正如曼德拉曾说过,‘以对方能听懂的语言说的话只能进入对方的大脑,以对方的母语说的话才能走入对方的内心’”。Cameron, who visited a school for six- and seven-year-olds learning English in Chengdu, said that a partnership between the British Council and Hanban – the Chinese National Office for Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language – will double the number of Chinese language assistants in the UK by 2016 and provide increased funding to lower the cost to schools of offering Mandarin as a language option.卡梅伦访问了成都的龙江路小学。他还表示,英国文化委员会和中国汉办(中国国家汉语国际推广领导小组办公室)将会继续合作伙伴关系,计划到2016年将英国的汉语助教人数提高一倍,并为开设汉语教学的英国学校提供资金持以降低其办学成本。In an expansion of the UK-China School Partnerships programme, funding will also be provided for 60 headteachers to make study visits to China in 2014.卡梅伦表示也将继续推进与中国学校的合作项目,计划在2014年公费持60位中小学校长访问中国。The announcement was welcomed by the British Council and the British Academy, both of which have been pushing for policies to reverse the decline in students taking modern languages at school and university level.卡梅伦的上述声明受到了英国文化委员会和英国社会科学院的欢迎,这两个组织都在努力扭转英国大学和中学学生对现代语言学习逐渐丧失兴趣的局面。Martin Davidson, the British Council#39;s chief executive who has been visiting China with Cameron, said: ;The promotion of Chinese language in the UK and the English language in China are both vital to economic and cultural relations between the two countries. This initiative will increase collaboration and is particularly significant given that recent British Council research shows that Mandarin is one of 10 languages not widely spoken in the UK and yet crucial to our future growth and prosperity.;同卡梅伦一起访华的英国文化委员会执行总裁马丁·戴维森(Martin Davidson)表示:“同时推进中国的英语教学事业和英国的汉语教学事业对于加强两国的经济文化联系是至关重要的。首相此次的倡议不仅会加强两国合作,对于英国自己也有重要意义。英国文化委员会的调查显示,在英国汉语是普及率最低的10种语言之一,但汉语对于英国未来的发展繁荣无疑是十分重要的。”In recent research the British Council placed Mandarin in the top five most important languages for Britain#39;s future prosperity, security and influence. But it found only 1% of the adult population speaks Mandarin to a level that allows them to conduct a basic conversation. Just 3,000 pupils in England, Wales and Northern Ireland entered for Chinese languages GCSEs in 2013, putting it far behind the traditional choices of French with 177,000, Spanish with 91,000 and German with 62,000 entrants, as well as Urdu, Polish and Arabic.在英国文化委员会最近的一项研究中,汉语被列为关乎英国未来繁荣、安全和影响力的最重要语种前五名。但研究发现,只有1%的英国人能够使用汉语进行基本的日常对话。2013年度英格兰、威尔士和北爱尔兰一共只有3000名初中学生报名了GCSE标准中文课程,这远远少于选择其他语言的学生人数。例如,选择法语的学生有177,000名,选择西班牙语的有91,000名,选择德语的有62,200名。除了这些传统的热门语言之外,选择汉语学习的学生人数也少于乌尔都语、波兰语和阿拉伯语。But the popularity of Chinese languages improves at A-level, where it was the fourth most popular modern language in 2013, with 3,300 entrants compared with 11,000 taking A-level French and 4,200 taking German.不过,学习中文的高中生呈现出增多的趋势。高中的中文课程是2013年度最热门的4大现代语言课程之一,共有3300名学生参加。选择法语课程的高中生有11,000名,选择德语课程的高中生有4,200名。The estimated 500,000 ethnic Chinese living in Britain make it the largest overseas Chinese population of any European country.目前约有50万华裔人士居住在英国,这一数字高于欧洲其他国家。Professor Dame Helen Wallace, the British Academy#39;s foreign secretary, said her organisation had been arguing for an improvement in foreign language skills, and had identified Mandarin as one of the extended range of languages to be promoted in schools.英国社会科学院外事发言人海伦·华莱士(Dame Helen Wallace)教授说:“一直以来,我们都十分赞成提高公民的外语水平,我们已把汉语列为各大学校应设立学科进行教学的语种之一。”But a lack of qualified teachers could be a barrier to improving its popularity, Wallace said.华莱士补充说:“不过现在缺乏专业的汉语教师,这将会给普及汉语学习带来一定困难。”;The supply chain needs to work in both ways. Children need to be persuaded to do it and you need the availability of capable teachers at all levels – primary, secondary and university – to develop positive reinforcement in the availability of teachers and the interest of teachers.;“增加中文教师数量需要双管齐下。一方面,要说学生们选择中文课程;另一方面,需要有能力的教师站上中小学和大学的讲台,明中文教师的实际价值,吸引更多同行加入。”And she warned: ;No such strategy works unless you stick at it. There#39;s no use doing this for two or three years and then forgetting about it – you have to make a long-term investment in this kind of change capacity.;Laura Chan, one of the co-founders of the Marco Polo Academy, a bilingual Mandarin-English primary school opening in Barnet next September as part of the free schools programme, said the prime minister#39;s announcement was good news for the status of Mandarin.华莱士还提醒道:“任何计划只有坚持才能奏效。推广汉语学习也一样,只做个两三年然后置之不理是没有用的。改变目前的语言学习状况需要长期的努力。”明年9月将有一所名为“马可波罗学院”的中英双语小学在巴尼特成立,这所学校也是英国“免费学校”计划的项目之一。这所学校的创始人之一劳拉·陈(Laura Chan)认为,首相此次的呼吁对于提高汉语在英国的地位来说是一个好消息。;It#39;s a great help. It will increase people#39;s awareness of Mandarin as a language they can learn,; she said.她说:“这无疑大有帮助。首相的呼吁让人们意识到汉语也是他们需要学习掌握的语言之一。”;One reason we wanted to set up the free school is that the teaching of language in the UK is not particularly effective, especially for young children.;“我们想要建立这所免费学校也是因为在英国语言教学的成效并不显著,尤其是对于年纪小的孩子。”From September 2014, studying foreign languages will be compulsory in primary schools under the new national curriculum.根据最新修订的国家课程大纲,从2014年9月起,外语学习将成为英国小学的必修科目。 /201312/269437

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