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2018年09月22日 15:56:46来源:飞度新闻资讯信息

万圣节是西方传统节日。万圣节前夜,当夜幕降临,孩子们穿上五颜六色的化妆,戴上千奇百怪的面具。有的披上漆黑长衫,骑着“魔帚”,扮作女巫;有的裹上白床单装鬼;有的戴上画有骷髅旗的帽子扮成海盗…… Halloween is an annual celebration, but just what is it actually a celebration of? And how did this peculiar custom originate? Is it, as some claim, a kind of demon worship? Or is it just a harmless vestige of some ancient pagan ritual? The word itself, Halloween, actually has its origins in the Catholic Church. It comes from a contracted corruption of All Hallows Eve. November 1, All Hollows Day (or All Saints Day), is a Catholic day of observance in honor of saints. But, in the 5th century , in Celtic Ireland, summer officially ended on October 31. The holiday was called Samhain (sow-en), the Celtic New year. One story says that, on that day, the disembodied spirits of all those who had died throughout the preceding year would come back in search of living bodies to possess for the next year. It was believed to be their only hope for the afterlife. The Celts believed all laws of space and time were suspended during this time, allowing the spirit world to intermingle with the living. Naturally, the still-living did not want to be possessed. So on the night of October 31, villagers would extinguish the fires in their homes, to make them cold and undesirable. They would then dress up in all manner of ghoulish costumes and noisily paraded around the neighborhood, being as destructive as possible in order to frighten away spirits looking for bodies to possess. Probably a better explanation of why the Celts extinguished their fires was not to discourage spirit possession, but so that all the Celtic tribes could relight their fires from a common source, the Druidic fire that was kept burning in the Middle of Ireland, at Usinach. Some accounts tell of how the Celts would burn someone at the stake who was thought to have aly been possessed, as sort of a lesson to the spirits. Other accounts of Celtic history debunk these stories as myth. The Romans adopted the Celtic practices as their own. But in the first century AD, Samhain was assimilated into celebrations of some of the other Roman traditions that took place in October, such as their day to honor Pomona, the Roman goddess of fruit and trees. The symbol of Pomona is the apple, which might explain the origin of our modern tradition of bobbing for apples on Halloween. The thrust of the practices also changed over time to become more ritualized. As belief in spirit possession waned, the practice of dressing up like hobgoblins, ghosts, and witches took on a more ceremonial role. The custom of Halloween was brought to America in the 1840's by Irish immigrants fleeing their country's potato famine. At that time, the favorite pranks in New England included tipping over outhouses and unhinging fence gates. The custom of trick-or-treating is thought to have originated not with the Irish Celts, but with a ninth-century European custom called souling. On November 2, All Souls Day, early Christians would walk from village to village begging for soul cakes, made out of square pieces of b with currants. The more soul cakes the beggars would receive, the more prayers they would promise to say on behalf of the dead relatives of the donors. At the time, it was believed that the dead remained in limbo for a time after death, and that prayer, even by strangers, could expedite a soul's passage to heaven. The Jack-o-lantern custom probably comes from Irish folklore. As the tale is told, a man named Jack, who was notorious as a drunkard and trickster, tricked Satan into climbing a tree. Jack then carved an image of a cross in the tree's trunk, trapping the devil up the tree. Jack made a deal with the devil that, if he would never tempt him again, he would promise to let him down the tree. According to the folk tale, after Jack died, he was denied entrance to Heaven because of his evil ways, but he was also denied access to Hell because he had tricked the devil. Instead, the devil gave him a single ember to light his way through the frigid darkness. The ember was placed inside a hollowed-out turnip to keep it glowing longer. The Irish used turnips as their Jack's lanterns originally. But when the immigrants came to America, they found that pumpkins were far more plentiful than turnips. So the Jack-O-Lantern in America was a hollowed-out pumpkin, lit with an ember. So, although some cults may have adopted Halloween as their favorite holiday, the day itself did not grow out of evil practices. It grew out of the rituals of Celts celebrating a new year, and out of Medieval prayer rituals of Europeans. And today, even many churches have Halloween parties or pumpkin carving events for the kids. After all, the day itself is only as evil as one cares to make it. /200804/36479。

  • Nokia has re-released its classic 3310 model 17 years after it was first launched.诺基亚再次发行了其经典款的3310型手机,自其首次推出这款手机都已经过去17年了。The iconic handset was a massive hit with users back in 2000 and now the mobile phone giant is relaunching it with a month-long battery, 22 hours of talk-time, and even its popular game, snake.2000年,这款标志性手机受到了用户们的广泛欢迎。如今,该手机巨头重新推出了这款手机,其配备的电池可使用1个月之久,通话时长可达22小时,这款手机甚至还装上了其备受欢迎的游戏——贪吃蛇。The 3310, with a slick new look that pays homage to its original design, was unveiled at the Mobile World Congress (MWC) in Barcelona, Spain.这款3310型手机是在西班牙巴塞罗那举办的全球移动通信大会上推出的,其新外观十分精巧,却也显示出其对原始设计的敬意。While the handset looks similar to its predecessor, Nokia has brought its new model up to date and instead of the original display, a monochrome 84 x 84, it has a colour screen.虽然这款手机看上去与其前身相似,但诺基亚推出了最新款的机型,用屏替换了原来84 x 84的单色显示屏。However, it has limited internet capabilities, relying on 2.5G connectivity, with users browsing at speeds slower than if they were using 3G.然而,它的网络功能有限,仅通过2.5G网络进行连接,如果用户使用3G网络,浏览速度就会慢一些。It also has a single camera which has just two megapixels.它还有一个单向摄像头,但像素只有两百万。The phone, which sold 126million handsets until it was phased out in 2005, will be sold by Finish company HMD Global.直到这款手机于2005年逐步停产,它已卖出了1.2亿部。(如今,)这款手机将由芬兰HMD全球公司出售。The firm believe the revamped 3310 offers users the perfect compromise to modern life.该公司相信翻新的3310型手机将为用户提供针对现代生活的完美折中方案。HMD now hope that they can cash in on the world#39;s affection for the 3310 with handsets costing around 49 euros each.如今,3310型手机的售价约为49欧元,HMD希望他们可以利用全球人民对这款手机的钟爱来捞金。 /201703/495374。
  • The technology industry always has its eyes on the future, but few foresaw the scene that played out on Wednesday afternoon in Trump Tower.科技行业总是着眼未来,但很少有人能够预见到周三下午发生在特朗普大厦的一幕。One by one, the leaders of the world’s most elite and successful technology companies trooped up to the 25th floor to meet President-elect Donald J. Trump, who had criticized them and who they, in turn, had criticized. The executives did not acknowledge or speak to the press on the way in.全球最顶尖、最成功的科技公司的领导者相继抵达这座大厦的25楼,会见候任总统唐纳德#8226;J#8226;特朗普(Donald J. Trump),他曾经批评过他们,而他们也反过来批评他。进入大厦时他们没有向媒体致意或讲话。First everyone went around the room and introduced themselves — Jeff Bezos, of Amazon; Elon Musk, of Tesla; Tim Cook, of Apple; Sheryl Sandberg, of Facebook; Larry Page of Alphabet, Google’s parent company; Satya Nadella, of Microsoft, and other tech leaders. Mr. Trump was seated next to Peter Thiel, the tech investor who is a member of the president-elect’s transition team. Three of Mr. Trump’s children also attended.一开始大家纷纷在会议室内相互致意――亚马逊的杰夫#8226;贝佐斯(Jeff Bezos);特斯拉(Tesla)的埃隆#8226;马斯克(Elon Musk);苹果的蒂姆#8226;库克(Tim Cook);Facebook的谢莉尔#8226;桑德伯格(Sheryl Sandberg);谷歌母公司Alphabet的拉里#8226;佩奇(Larry Page);微软的萨蒂亚#8226;纳德拉(Satya Nadella),以及其他科技公司领导者。坐在特朗普旁边的是彼得#8226;蒂尔(Peter Thiel),这位科技业投资者是候任总统过渡团队中的成员。特朗普的三个子女也在场。The president-elect greeted the executives effusively after they were seated around a long rectangular conference table.高管们在长长的长方形会议桌旁就坐,候任总统热情地跟他们打招呼。“This is a truly amazing group of people,” Mr. Trump said. “I won’t tell you the hundreds of calls we’ve had asking to come to this meeting.” Everyone laughed.“这可真是特别棒的一群人,”特朗普说。“我们接到几百个电话要求参加这次会议,这个我就不跟你们多说了。”所有人都笑了。“I’m here to help you folks do well,” Mr. Trump said, adding somewhat cryptically: “And you’re doing well right now and I’m very honored by the bounce. They’re all talking about the bounce. So right now everybody in this room has to like me — at least a little bit — but we’re going to try and have that bounce continue.”“我的责任是帮你们成功,”特朗普含糊其辞地补充说:“你们现在就很成功,这种转变让我不胜荣幸。他们都在说转变的事。所以眼下这个房间里的每个人都应该喜欢我――至少有那么一点――但我们要试着让转变持续下去。”Shortly after that, the press was ushered out of the room. It wasn’t immediately clear what unfolded after that.不久后,媒体就被请出了房间。目前还不清楚其后屋子里发生了什么事。The technology world had been in turmoil as the meeting drew near. Some argued the chief executives should boycott the event to show their disdain for Mr. Trump’s values. Others maintained they should go and forthrightly make their values clear. And still others thought they should attend and make their accommodations with the new reality.随着会议临近,科技界一直处于混乱之中。有人认为,首席执行官们应该抵制这次会面,以表明他们鄙视特朗普的价值观。有人则认为他们应该去,并且直率地表明自己的价值观。还有一些人认为,他们应该前往,并且适应新的现实。“There is a wide spectrum of feeling in the Valley,” said Aaron Levie, chief executive of the cloud storage company Box.云存储公司Box的首席执行官阿隆#8226;列维(Aaron Levie)说,“硅谷之内对此有各种不同的感受。”Complicating the debate was the fact that the most fervently anti-Trump elements in Silicon Valley seem to be the start-ups and venture capitalists, few of which were invited to the meeting.令这场辩论更加复杂的是,硅谷最狂热的特朗普反对者们似乎是那些创业公司和风险资本家,他们几乎没有被邀请参加会议。In the days and hours before the meeting, various factions made their positions clear. A group of engineers and other tech workers issued a statement asserting they would refuse to participate in the creation of databases that could be used by the government to target people based on their race, religion or national origin.在会议之前的几天乃至几个小时里,各种派别都做了明确表态。一群工程师和其他技术工作者发表声明,称如果数据库会被用来根据种族、宗教信仰或原国籍对人民进行区别对待,他们会拒绝参与这种数据库的创建。The proclamation immediately drew more than 500 signatories, including employees at Google, Apple and Microsoft. During the campaign, Mr. Trump did not rule out the idea of a database of Muslims.该声明立即吸引了500多位签名者,包括谷歌、苹果和微软的员工。在竞选期间,特朗普曾表示不排除建立穆斯林数据库的做法。Another group of entrepreneurs assembled virtually this week with the same goal of preventing any erosion of civil liberties. They also accepted “a responsibility to partner with communities where the effects of rapidly changing technologies have hurt our fellow Americans.” Among those signing were Aileen Lee, a venture capitalist; Dave McClure, of the 500 Start-Ups incubator; and Lenny Mendonca, an angel investor.另一群企业家亦在本周聚集在一起,他们同上述声明者的目标几乎是一样的,都是为了防止任何对公民自由的侵害。他们也相信“当技术的快速变化对我们的美国同胞造成了伤害时”,我们有责任与受影响的社区进行合作”。签名者包括风险资本家艾琳#8226;李(Aileen Lee);“创业500”(500 Start-Ups)孵化器的戴夫#8226;麦克卢尔(Dave McClure)和天使投资者莱尼#8226;门东萨(Lenny Mendonca)。Mr. Levie, of Box, a Hillary Clinton supporter who this week joined the executive council of the bipartisan policy group TechNet, believes in engagement with the new administration. “We have to face reality that this is the next four years, and the best way to make sure our values are upheld is actually push on them,” he said.作为希拉里#8226;克林顿(Hillary Clinton)的持者,Box公司的列维本周加入了两党政策集团TechNet的执行委员会,他认为应该与新政府进行接触。“我们必须面对现实,未来四年就是这样的,确保我们的价值观得到维护的最好方法就是切实地推广它们,”他说。Other tech chief executives were also taking the same route of working with the new administration. Hours before Mr. Trump’s meeting with tech leaders, the president-elect announced that Mr. Musk and Travis Kalanick, Uber’s chief executive, would be among those joining his Strategic and Policy Forum, which is aly stacked with businesspeople from finance and other industries. Ginni Rometty, the chief executive of IBM, had previously joined the forum.其他科技公司的首席执行官也同样采取了同样的方式与新政府合作。在与科技领袖们会面几小时之前,特朗普宣布马斯克和优步的首席执行官特拉维斯#8226;卡兰尼克(Travis Kalanick)将加入他的战略与政策论坛(Strategic and Policy Forum),该论坛中已有一批来自金融业和其他行业的商人。IBM的首席执行官罗睿兰(Ginni Rometty)之前亦加入了该论坛。While few in tech publicly supported Mr. Trump, his election is prodding the industry to realize it was isolating itself. For all of tech’s success in defining the first years of the 21st century, there were too many people who felt left behind.虽然科技界很少有人公开持特朗普,但他的当选促使该行业意识到自己正在日益孤立。尽管科技成功决定了21世纪最初数年的面貌,但是有太多人产生了被遗弃的感觉。“There is a growing divide between those who get to participate in our growth and those stuck in legacy industries,” said Mr. Levie. “Bridging that gap will require better partnership and better collaborations.”“参与了我们的发展的人,和那些被困在传统行业内的人之间,分歧越来越大,”列维说。“在这一鸿沟上架起桥梁需要更好的伙伴关系与更好的合作。” /201612/484296。
  • As the Gujarat Lions cruised to an easy win over the Kolkata Knight Riders, Tim Cook stood on the edge of the pitch expressing his newfound love for Indian cricket. “I’m totally hooked#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;it’s so exciting here,” Apple#39;s chief executive said, midway through his first visit to the country this month.就在古吉拉特雄师队(Gujarat Lions)轻松取胜加尔各答骑士队(Kolkata Knight Riders)时,蒂姆#8226;库克(Tim Cook)站在球场边表达着自己对印度板球新萌发的热爱。“我完全被迷住了……这里太令人兴奋了,”这位苹果(Apple)首席执行官5月在首次造访印度时说。Mr Cook’s cricket outing may have been in part a publicity stunt, but he has good reason to seek a better understanding of Indian culture. The country has become a conspicuous source of growth for Apple, which said iPhone sales there increased by 56 per cent in the first quarter of this year, even as they fell globally for the first time.库克的板球行在某种程度上或许是宣传伎俩,但是他有很好的理由去尝试更好地理解印度文化。印度已经成为了苹果的一个突出增长来源——今年第一季度,就在iPhone全球销量首次同比下降之际,印度iPhone销量增长56%。In fact, world smartphone sales as a whole suffered their first fall in the same period, according to research by Canalys, but India’s market again stood out, notching up an overall 12 per cent increase as millions of people made the switch from basic feature phones.事实上,据Canalys研究显示,同期全球智能手机整体销量经历了首次下跌。但是,印度市场再次异军突起:随着数百万人从功能手机转而使用智能手机,印度智能手机总销量增长了12%。Mr Cook’s visit has put the spotlight on what is now “the most important country in the smartphone market”, according to a Morgan Stanley report last month, which predicted that by next year sales in India would be second only to China and boast a higher growth rate.库克此行让人们关注起印度。根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)4月的报告称,如今印度是“智能手机市场里最重要的国家”。报告预测,明年印度智能手机销量将位列全球第二,仅次于中国,增长率还有望更高。But in some respects India is more challenging than any other big market on which Apple has set its sights.但是,在某些方面,印度比苹果迄今看中的所有其他大型市场都更富有挑战性。Competition is heating up, with a growing crowd of Chinese players including Lenovo, Xiaomi and Huawei taking on the established leaders — South Korea’s Samsung Electronics and entrenched local brands such as Micromax.竞争正在升温。联想(Lenovo)、小米(Xiaomi)和华为(Huawei)等越来越多的中国选手一方面正在挑战韩国三星电子(Samsung Electronics)老牌领军企业,另一方面还在挑战Micromax等根基深厚的印度本土品牌。Per capita income of ,617 last year, compared with China’s ,990, means the iPhone is beyond the means of the vast majority of Indians. Analysts put its national market share at no more than 2 per cent.与中国7990美元的人均国民收入相比,印度去年人均国民收入仅为1617美元,这意味着iPhone超出了绝大多数印度人的价格承受范围。分析师认为iPhone在印度占据的市场份额不超过2%。“People in rural towns are buying feature phones at Rs500-Rs1,500 (-),” says Navkendar Singh, an analyst at IDC, who estimates that smartphones still account for less than half of overall mobile phone sales in India despite the rapid growth. “We don#39;t expect them to make a big jump and start spending a lot of money on telecoms.”“在农村生活的人们一般购买500至1500卢比(合7至22美元)的功能手机,”IDC分析师纳肯达尔#8226;辛格(Navkendar Singh)表示。他估计,尽管智能手机销量增长迅速,但是在印度手机总销量中的占比仍不足一半。“我们不认为他们会出现飞跃式的变化,开始在通话设备上花大价钱。”About half of Apple’s handset sales in India in the first quarter of the year were of the almost four year old iPhone 5s, according to Counterpoint Research.Counterpoint Research表示,今年第一季度苹果在印度售出的iPhone约一半是面世已将近3年的iPhone 5s。Mr Cook’s recent meeting with Narendra Modi, India’s prime minister, gave him a chance to lobby for concessions that would strengthen Apple’s position in this race.库克最近与印度总理纳伦德拉#8226;莫迪(Narendra Modi)的会面,为他提供了一次讨要优待的机会,这会让苹果在这场竞赛中获得更为有利的位置。The company had been seeking to broaden its appeal to cost-conscious consumers by selling used phones — but the Indian government ruled against that plan this month, after complaints that it would cannibalise domestic phone manufacturing.该公司此前一直试图通过出售二手手机来扩大自己对注重价格的消费者的吸引力,但是,有人抱怨称这将损害印度本土手机制造业,印度政府5月裁定该计划不得实行。Anshul Gupta, an analyst at Gartner, says Apple’s eagerness to distribute low-cost iPhones is logical even if it could weigh on margins in the short term. “What matters is the installed base [using Apple’s operating system]#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;some of those will later be upgrading to the high end,” he says.Gartner分析师安舒尔#8226;古普塔(Anshul Gupta)称,苹果渴望销售低价iPhone是合乎逻辑的,即使这在短期内使利润率承压。“重要的是(使用苹果操作系统的)用户基数……其中一些随后将升级购买更高端产品,”他称。More than 90 per cent of phone users in India use prepaid SIM cards instead of long-term contracts, which prevents operators from offering the kind of subsidies that have boosted sales of higher-cost handsets elsewhere.印度逾90%的手机用户都使用预付费SIM卡、而不签订长期合同,这使得运营商无法提供那种在其他地区提振了高价手机销量的补贴。But Mr Cook argues that opportunities offered by fast 4G networks will boost iPhone sales. Market leader Bharti Airtel launched the first national 4G network last August, which should be followed this year by Reliance Jio, a bn telecoms project from Reliance Industries, India’s second-biggest listed company.但是,库克认为,快速的4G网络带来的机遇将提振iPhone销量。去年8月,印度市场领军企业巴蒂电信(Bharti Airtel)推出了印度首个4G网络,第二个4G网络应该会在今年由Reliance Jio推出——Reliance Jio是印度第二大上市公司信实工业(Reliance Industries)价值160亿美元的电信项目。“Knowing Reliance, I won’t be surprised if they pick up a few hundred thousand iPhones and subsidise them for the marketing impact,” says Jayant Kolla, co-founder of Convergence Catalyst, a telecoms consultancy.“以我对信实的了解,如果他们为了营销效果而入手几十万部iPhone并为其提供补贴,我不会感到意外,”电信咨询公司Convergence Catalyst的共同创始人贾扬特#8226;科拉(Jayanth Kolla)称。Apple’s recent growth in India has come largely at the expense of Samsung. According to CyberMedia Research, Apple’s share of sales in the premium smartphone segment — with prices above Rs30,000 — rose to 44 per cent last year, only 2 percentage points behind the South Korean group.苹果近来在印度市场的增长,主要损害的是三星的利益。CyberMedia Research数据显示,去年苹果在高端智能手机(售价高于3万卢比)品类的市场份额达到44%,仅比三星少2个百分点。But Samsung remains the clear leader in India’s overall market, having stemmed sharp falls in market share with its successful Galaxy J range. With features seemingly aimed at Indian consumers — including a special mode for motorbike users that attracted interest in the world’s biggest two-wheeler market — that series also brought improved design at a lower cost than previous models.但是,就整个印度市场而言,三星仍是毫无争议的领导者,Galaxy J系列的成功让该公司止住了市场份额大幅下滑的局面。该系列有一些看上去专为印度消费者设计的功能(还有一个专为托车司机设计的特别型号,旨在吸引这个世界第二大两轮车市场的兴趣),改进了设计,并且价格比老款更低。Samsung has refused to be part of the widesp discounting of smartphones on ecommerce sites such as Flipkart. “Samsung is one of the few that has preserved price discipline,” Mr Singh says.三星一直拒绝参与Flipkart等电商平台上流行的智能手机打折促销。“三星是坚守价格纪律的少数厂商之一,”辛格说。In contrast, Chinese smartphone makers such as Lenovo, Xiaomi and Huawei piggybacked on the distribution infrastructure of ecommerce sites as a low-risk way to enter the Indian market. Xiaomi, for example, targeted India for one of its first forays beyond China, and has launched its phones in the country through a series of promotional events with Flipkart — after each of which the companies have announced that the early stock was sold out in less than 15 seconds.相比之下,联想、小米和华为等中国智能手机厂商则利用了电商网站的销售平台,作为一条进入印度市场的低风险渠道。例如,小米把印度作为海外布局的首选地之一,通过Flipkart上的一系列推广活动,在印度市场发售自己的手机。每一次推广活动都是开始不到15秒钟,厂商就宣布先期库存已售罄。Now entrenched as big players — their market share doubled in the year to March to reach nearly one-quarter, says IDC — the Chinese groups are seeking to cement their position by investing in a physical presence, including heavy branding in third-party retail stores.尽管这些中国厂商如今已经拥有举足轻重的市场地位(IDC表示,在截至今年3月的一年里,中国厂商在印度的市场份额增加了一倍、至近四分之一),但它们仍寻求通过投资于实体业务(比如在第三方零售店进行大规模品牌推广)来巩固自己的地位。The surge of Chinese imports is putting to the test India’s hopes of developing globally competitive smartphone brands, which still account for about four in 10 phones sold.印度希望打造在国际上有竞争力的智能手机品牌,而来自中国的进口手机猛增令这一愿望受到考验。目前,印度本土智能手机品牌仍占到印度智能手机总销量的四成。Local champion Micromax remained the second-biggest producer by volume in the first quarter with 17 per cent market share, according to Canalys, but that figure has been declining.Canalys数据显示,按销量计,印度本土智能手机领军企业Micromax今年一季度仍是第二大智能手机厂商,占到17%的市场份额,但这个数字一直在下降。Having lost its chief executive in March, Micromax is now bullishly targeting foreign expansion particularly in former Soviet countries. But it has not done enough to differentiate itself from other Android-based phonemakers, says Mr Kolla. He notes that it and other Indian companies such as Karbonn and Intex are still largely reliant on Chinese contractors and suppliers — even as they shift production to India in response to higher import duties and rising wages in China.Micromax原首席执行官今年3月离职。该公司如今正积极瞄准对外扩张,尤其是向前苏联国家扩张。但科拉说,该公司的努力还不足以使它从众多安卓系统手机厂商中脱颖而出。他指出,即便在Karbonn、Intex等印度厂商为应对进口关税升高和中国工资上涨,将生产基地搬回印度之际,这些厂商仍然对中国合同商和供货商非常依赖。Mr Kolla says the opportunity to profit from rapid smartphone adoption in India will not last for ever — for local brands or international competitors. “This growth won’t continue beyond 2018,” he warns. “The rest of the market is flat, and India will get there in a couple of years.”科拉说,无论是对印度本土品牌还是对它们的国际竞争者而言,印度智能手机迅速普及带来的盈利机会都不会一直存在下去。“这种增速将不会持续到2018年之后,”他警告称,“其他地区的市场已停止增长,印度市场在几年后也将呈现出这种状态。” /201606/447115。
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