2019年03月25日 05:03:32|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞排名名医
The US Congress is putting pressure on the World Bank to preserve its social and environmental rules for projects in developing countries amid fears that the emergence of rivals backed by China may force it to weaken standards.美国国会对世界银World Bank)施压,要求后者对发展中国家的项目保持一贯的社会和环境标准。目前有人担心,中国持的对手的出现,可能会迫使世行降低标准。The World Bank is next year expected to wrap up a review of its safeguards, which were introduced in the 1980s in response to criticism of environmental damage and rights violations linked to bank-funded megaprojects.预计世行明年将完成对其防护机制的重新审议,这些防护措施是在上世纪80年代推出的,目的是回应相关批评,这些批评称,世行资助的大型项目导致了环境损害和侵犯人权行为。But environmentalists fear rising competition from a new Brics bank and China-backed Asian infrastructure fund mean that review will inevitably lead to lower standards.但环保人士担心,新的金砖和中国持的亚洲基础设施基金带来的更多竞争意味着,世行的重新审议难免带来标准降低。A spending bill signed into law by US President Barack Obama on Tuesday includes tough requirements for the Treasury department, which oversees relations with the World Bank. In particular it calls for the administration to instruct the US executive director at the bank to vote against any project that is subject to environmental or social standards deemed weaker than those now in place.美国总统巴拉#8226;奥巴Barack Obama)周二签署为法律的一项出法案,对美国财政部提出了严格的要求(美国财政部负责控管美国与世行的关系)。具体而言,该法案呼吁奥巴马政府指示美国驻世行执行董事投票反对任何降低现行环境或社会标准的项目。In a letter sent to Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew on Monday and obtained by the Financial Times, three senior Democratic senators said they were concerned that a draft released by the bank in July “may represent a dilution of existing protections英国《金融时报》获得了3位民主党资深参议员周一发给美国财政部长雅各#8226;Jacob Lew)的信,信中表示,他们担心,世月发布的草案“可能代表着对现行防护措施的弱化”。Among the issues cited by the senators was a proposal that would allow projects to be approved and funds to be disbursed before environmental and social concerns such as those over the relocation of people were addressed properly. That, they said, would reduce the bank’s leverage over governments and could see “funds wasted这些参议员提到了一项提案,该提案将允许世行在相关环境和社会问题(比如居民迁移)得到妥善解决之前,先行对项目放行和提供资金。他们说,这可能降低世行对有关国家政府的影响力,可能导致“资金浪费”。“The World Bank has drafted these proposed safeguards to become more nimble and competitive,Senators Robert Menendez, Barbara Boxer and Edward Markey wrote. “But we believe these safeguards will hurt the World Bank’s efficiency, undermining its ability to compete with other development banks.”“世行起草这些拟议防护措施的目的,是为了变得更灵活、更有竞争力。”参议员罗伯#8226;梅南德兹(Robert Menendez)、芭芭拉#8226;克Barbara Boxer)和爱德华#8226;马基(Edward Markey)写道,“但我们认为这些措施将损害世行的效率,削弱其与其他开发竞争的能力。”The Washington-based World Bank “sets the bar for international development banks by raising standards, not by lowering them the senators wrote.几位参议员写道,总部位于华盛顿的世行“应该通过提高标准(而不是降低标准)来为国际开发树立标杆”。A US Treasury spokeswoman said the US considered the World Bank’s existing safeguards “an essential tooland put “great weighton the input from Congress.美国财政部的一名女发言人表示,美国认为世行现有的防护措施是“必不可少的手段”,国会议员的意见值得“高度重视”。The US has been lobbying countries behind closed doors not to join the new Asian Infrastructure Investment Fund launched by China earlier this year. In public, US officials have also repeatedly raised questions about what sort of environmental and labour standards the new fund would operate with and what impact its creation might have on other lenders.美国一直在秘密游说各国不要加入中国今年早些时候发起的亚洲基础设施投资基金(Asian Infrastructure Investment Fund)。美国官员在公开场合也一直在不断对这基金将遵循的环保和劳工标准、以及它的成立对其他开发的可能影响提出质疑。The World Bank insists the review of its environmental and social safeguards is badly needed to modernise a system that is decades old and unnecessarily bureaucratic and burdensome.世行坚称,现行环境和社会防护措施体系已实行数十年,并且无必要地官僚和繁琐,急需重新审议,使其跟上时代。“We will have a stronger, more modern set of safeguards at the end of this process, and we are comfortable with the provisions in the [new] US legislation,Charles Di Leva, the bank’s chief counsel for environmental and international law, told the FT in an emailed statement.世行环境和国际法首席法律顾问查尔#8226;迪莱Charles Di Leva)通过电邮向英囀?金融时报》表示:“这一过程完成后,我们将拥有一套更强健、更现代化的防护措施,我们也能轻松满足美国(新)法中的规定。”But activists still remain sceptical and concerned over the implications of the proposed changes.但活动人士仍对拟议变化的影响感到怀疑和担忧。“If the World Bank sends a retrograde signal this could lead to an even more rapid race to the bottom than we have aly seen,said Stephanie Fried, executive director of the Ulu Foundation, a campaign group.活动团体Ulu Foundation的执行主任斯蒂芬#8226;弗里Stephanie Fried)表示,“如果世行发出一个倒退的信号,可能导致我们目睹的逐底竞赛进一步加快。”来 /201412/350057

The Obama administration’s environmental policy is deepening divisions between big businesses on climate change, mirroring polarisation among US states over an issue that will drive more legal and political conflict next year.奥巴马政府的环境政策加深了大企业在气候变化问题上的分歧,也折射出美国各州在这一议题上的两极化态度。气候变化问题明年将给美国带来更多法律和政治冲突。A White House plan to curb greenhouse gas emissions from power stations has exposed a growing rift between consumer businesses that support the proposal and industrial groups that are vehemently opposed to it.美国政府试图限制发电厂温室气体排放量的计划,暴露出消费品企业和工业企业之间日益加深的裂痕,前者持这一计划,后者则强烈反对。President Barack Obama is seeking to make action on climate change a central part of his legacy, but the plan from his environmental regulator is aly threatened by lawsuits and Republican opponents in the US Congress.美国总统巴拉#8226;奥巴Barack Obama)正在争取让针对气候变化问题的举措成为他的主要政治遗产,但是上述由美国国家环境保护局(EPA)提议的举措已然引发官司,国会中的共和党反对者也威胁要让提案流产。The corporate divide emerged from 1.6m-plus comments sent to the Environmental Protection Agency by a deadline of midnight on Monday, reflecting arguments that will rage as the agency seeks to finalise its plan by June 2015.到提案公众评议期截止日、本周一2点时,美国环境保护署(EPA)共收到60万条,从中可以看出企业间的分歧,也预示着环保署在促成提案015月敲定的过程中将面对激辩。A group of more than 220 companies, including well-known US names such as Kellogg’s, Levi-Strauss, Mars, Nike and Starbucks, has signed a letter in support of Mr Obama’s plan, along with European groups including Adidas, Ikea, Nestlé and Unilever.包括家喻户晓的氏(Kelloggs)、利惠公Levi Strauss amp; Co)、玛Mars)、耐克(Nike)和星巴克(Starbucks)在内的20家美国公司组成的团体,已经签署联名信表示持奥巴马的这一计划,阿迪达Adidas)、宜Ikea)、雀Nestlé)和联合利Unilever)等欧洲公司也参与了联署。The letter, organised by Ceres, an investor group that campaigns on environmental and social issues, says the companies agree that climate change poses “real financial risks and tackling it is “one of America’s greatest economic opportunities of the 21st century这封信是由致力于环境和社会问题的投资者团体环境“责任经济联盟Ceres)组织发起。信中写到,这些公司一致认为,气候变化会带来“真正的财务风险”,而解决气候变化问题是“美国在21世纪面临的最伟大经济机会之一”。Tim Brown, chief executive of Nestlé Waters North America, said supplies of crops and water were essential to the company’s business, and both were threatened by climate change.雀巢北美饮用水公司(Nestlé Waters North America)首席执行官蒂#8226;布朗(Tim Brown)表示,农作物和水的供应对该公司的业务至关重要,而这两种东西的供应都受到气候变化威胁。“We see it as crucial to the sustainability of the company. We’re 148 years old, and we would like to be here for another 148 years.”“我们认为这对公司的存续具有决定性影响。我们公司已48年历史,我们希望再过148年我们还在。”He added: “We feel consumers are going to be a big influence in this debate, and it’s important for them to know which side we come out on.”他补充说:“我们认为消费者将在这次辩论中发挥很大影响力,而让他们明确知道我们站在哪一边非常重要。”The EPA plan would cut carbon dioxide emissions from power stations by 30 per cent by 2030 from 2005 levels, primarily by reducing the US’s dependence on coal.美国环保局的计划将主要通过减少美国对煤的依赖,使美国发电厂的碳排放总量030年降005年水平的70%。The regulator has set emissions targets for each US state, which must decide how to achieve the cuts by switching to cleaner energy sources such as natural gas, nuclear or wind, by improving grid efficiency, or by reducing electricity consumption.美国环保局已经为美国各州设定了减排目标,各州必须决定如何通过改用更清洁的能源(如天然气、核能和风能)、提高电网效率,或者减少电力消耗来实现减排目标。But Mitch McConnell, who will lead a Republican Senate majority in the new Congress next year, has said one of his priorities is “to try to do whatever I can to get the [EPA] reined in但即将在明年的新一届国会中担任参议院多数党领袖的共和党参议员米#8226;麦康奈尔(Mitch McConnell)已表示,他的首要任务之一就是“尽一切努力将(环保局)牵制住”。Industry and fossil fuel businesses are strongly critical of its climate change plan. A coalition of groups including the National Association of Manufacturers, the American Petroleum Institute, the American Chemistry Council and the American Iron and Steel Institute, made a joint submission that said the EPA plan would make US companies uncompetitive in world markets.工业和化石燃料企业都强烈抨击环保局的气候变化提案。一个由美国全国制造商协会(NAM)、美国石油协API)、美国化学理事会(ACC)和美国钢铁协AISI)组成的联盟,提交了一份联合意见,称环保局的这一计划将使美国企业在世界市场上失去竞争力。来 /201412/346743

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