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Where plates in the Earth#39;s crust collide,在地球板块碰撞区域the rock on the sea floor containing carbon from the plankton shells死亡浮游生物构成的含有二氧化碳的岩石所处的海底is carried deep into the Earth.俯冲陷落到地球深处This is called subduction.这就叫俯冲As it descends, this layer of rock is heated在沉降过程中,这层岩石被加热and melts, releasing carbon dioxide.并且释放出二氧化碳This gas is returned back into the atmosphere during an eruption.随着火山爆发,气体重返大气层。The remarkable cycle is completed.这就完成了这个非同寻常的循环。It#39;s uncanny how life and volcanoes,火山和生命合作keep just the right amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere,让大气中的二氧化碳数量保持在适合的水平keeping our planet at a comfortable temperature.使地球保持在舒适的温度舒This process that had sustained all life on the planet,这个过程撑了行星上所有的生命comes at an enormous cost.但为此付出的代价也是巨大的Subduction volcanoes are the most violent on Earth.俯冲带火山是地球最暴烈的火山You can see just how explosive they are请看记录下来的一次最著名的爆发by looking at one of the most famous eruptions ever recorded.您就明白他们的喷发多么震撼 Article/201509/396887。

You know, the Florentines get all the credit. And it#39;s important to remember that there was another major city in the 1300s that was also in Tuscany that was another independent republic. And this is the Republic of Siena, with the capital city of Siena. And there was an enormously important and influential painter there whose name was Duccio. And so let#39;s look at one of his most important paintings, The Rucellai Madonna.你知道,佛罗伦斯画派得到所有的功劳。很重要的是要记得还有个在1300年代同样也在托斯卡尼另一个独立共和国的另一个大城市。这是锡耶那共和国,还有锡耶那首都。这里有个名为杜奇欧的极其重要、极具影响力的画家。所以来看看他最重要的画作之一:《端坐宝座的圣母与圣婴及六位天使》。We#39;re looking at a painting of the Madonna holding the Christ Child surrounded by 3 angels on either side and 12 feet high. It#39;s a very large painting.我们正看着圣母抱着圣婴两侧各环绕三个天使、有12英尺高(约3.6公尺)的画作。这是非常巨大的画作。Yeah, it#39;s a huge painting. In fact, the Virgin Mary herself is twice the height, if not larger, than a human being. It#39;s an altarpiece that#39;s meant to be seen at a great distance within a huge church.是的,这是很巨大的画作。事实上,圣母玛利亚她自己,如果没比两倍还大的话,最少也有人类的两倍高。这是一幅刻意要在大教堂里隔着远距离观赏的祭坛装饰品。And there#39;s so many decorative patterns here on the throne. In the spaces in between the posts that make up the throne, we see reds and blues. And then we#39;ve got more patterning in the drapery behind the throne.在圣座上这里有许多装饰图样。在组成圣座的柱子间的空间,我们看到红色和蓝色。接着我们在圣座后的布帘上得到更多图样。The characteristics that you#39;re referencing are seen by our historians to be the definition of Sienese art of this time—highly decorative, highly patterned, and with a subtlety of color that we don#39;t often see in the Florentine.你提到的特色被我们的历史学家视为当时锡耶那艺术的定义--高度装饰、高度以图样点缀、还有我们在佛罗伦斯画派中不常见到的色微妙之处。First of all, Mary#39;s whole body is in this lovely ultramarine blue, which was a very expensive paint. But the angels, you see purples, and greens, and pinks, and blues.首先,圣母的全身着以这个可人的深蓝色,在当时是一种非常昂贵的颜料。但那些天使,你看到紫色、绿色、粉红色、和蓝色。And they#39;re subtle and prismatic in a way that we don#39;t so much see in the flatter colors of the Florentine style.他们很微妙又光夺目,在某种程度上我们看不到太多在佛罗伦斯画派风格中那些比实物更吸引人的颜色。It#39;s hard to see that Mary#39;s sitting in her throne. The throne itself is so flat.很难看出圣母正坐在她的圣座上。那圣座本身如此平坦。It#39;s almost the background against which she#39;s seen. There#39;s so much details and so much decorative patterning in the throne, especially in the cloth that drapes the throne, that its structure gets lost, because pattern, of course, does emphasize the two-dimensional.那几乎是她被观赏时倚靠着的那背景。在那圣座上有如此多细节、如此多装饰图样,尤其是垂挂在宝座的那布料上,其结构消失了,因为当然那图样确实强调了那平面性。You know, when I look at Sienese art, especially the Rucellai Madonna, I tend to think of an artist who is so in love with the ability to create beauty. That pattern and form tend to trump the overall representation and the emphasis on any kind of naturalism or any physicality.你知道,当我看着锡耶那艺术,特别是《端坐宝座的圣母与圣婴及六位天使》,我很容易会想到一个如此深爱创造美感能力的艺术家。那图样和形式很容易胜过任何种类的自然主义与物质性的整体表现和重要性。For instance, look at the Byzantine-influenced hands of Mary. Look how long those fingers are. It#39;s almost as if the artist has gotten lost in the length of those fingers as they wrap around Christ#39;s waist.举例来说,看看那受到拜占庭影响的圣母之手。看看那些手指头有多长。几乎就像那艺术家迷失了那些手指的长度,当它们环抱着圣婴的腰时。They#39;re very beautiful, those hands. I#39;m thinking also about the amount of gold here. We see the disappearance of all of that gold through the 1300s into the 1400s. Here, the painting#39;s value is largely in that ultramarine paint that was expensive and in the use of gold. And what happens during the Renaissance is that the artist himself is valued. The artist#39;s skill becomes more valued. Not that Duccio#39;s skill wasn#39;t valued, but the value was also heavily in the materials that were used, that were often dictated by the patron.它们非常美丽,那些手。我同样也在想这里黄金的份量。我们在1300年代到1400年代间看到所有那种金色消失。在这里,这画作的价值大部分在于那昂贵的深蓝颜料和黄金的用量。在文艺复兴期间发生的是艺术家本身为人所重视。艺术家的技术变得更加为人重视。不是说杜奇欧的技术没被重视,而是那份重视程度极大部分也在于使用的材料、通常由赞助者指定的材料。Now, the ultramarine blue that you#39;re referencing was actually made of the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli. And during the Renaissance, the only mines that were available for lapis were in Afghanistan, still a remote place for us in the 21st century. One can only imagine how exotic and rare and difficult importing from Afghanistan would have been in the 1200s.现在,你提到的深蓝颜料事实上是由次等贵重的宝石青金石所制成的。在文艺复兴期间,唯一能取得青金石的矿山在阿富汗,对二十一世纪的我们来说仍是很遥远的地方。可想而知在1200年代从阿富汗进口会是多么奇特、罕见、和困难。And here we have an enormous quantity of that color being used.这里我们看到很大量的那颜色被使用。This is, in some ways, ostentatious. In some ways, this is a painting that is broadcasting its value, its wealth, its importance. What#39;s so interesting is this was a commission for the main altar in Santa Maria Novella in Florence, although it#39;s by a Sienese artist. And Santa Maria Novella is the main Dominican church, that is, one of the mendicant orders, this order of begging monks that had renounced worldly possessions. So there#39;s this interesting kind of tension.这是,就某方面来说,很豪华的。就某方面来说,这是一幅散播其价值、其财富、其重要性的画作。如此有趣的是这是给予佛罗伦斯新圣母玛利亚教堂主祭台的委托画作,虽然它是由一个锡耶那艺术家绘制的。新圣母玛利亚教堂是最重要的道明会教堂,也就是托钵修道会之一,这个抛弃尘世财物的行乞修道士的教团。所以有这种有趣的冲突。We mentioned that this is called the Rucellai Madonna and that#39;s a later title. This painting was later moved away from the main altar in Santa Maria Novella and into the Rucellai Chapel, that is, the private chapel that was controlled by the Florentine family, the Rucellai.我们提到这幅画称作《端坐宝座的圣母与圣婴及六位天使》,那是稍后的画名。这幅画后来从新圣母玛利亚教堂的主祭台被移走,放到鲁奇拉礼拜堂里,也就是由佛罗伦斯鲁奇拉家族所管理的私人小礼拜堂。 Article/201412/347753。

栏目介绍:搞笑英语轻松学通过不同的搞笑生活片段来学习日常口语,领域涉及生活的各个方面,让我们边看视频边学英语。正宗地道的口语,假一罚十。美剧电影真人秀都看过了之后还能看什么学口语呢?当然是看这些双语视频啦!又好玩,又原汁原味,又顺便学一两句地道英语,多痛快!快来看看吧! Article/201510/405032。

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: See if you can I.D. me. 看你能否鉴别出我。I#39;m a food that‘s being consumed for hundreds of years. 我作为一种食物已经几百年了。First, by indigenous people of Mexico. 最早使用我的是墨西哥土著人。I#39;m made from the seeds of a fruit tree, many would - their best when ground up and combined with milk and sugar. 我由水果树的种子做成,最好是添加上牛奶和糖。I#39;m chocolate. And my seeds come from the cacao tree.我是巧克力。我的种子来自可可树。AZUZ: Those seeds are used to make everything from the chocolate we eat to the cocoa we bake with to the syrups we put on our ice cream. 这些种子可以用来做巧克力、烘烤用的可可粉以及刚在冰激凌上的糖汁。They were used as money by the Maya, who lived in what is now Mexico. 他们被居住在相当于现在的墨西哥玛雅人当作货币。But chocolate, as we know it, didn#39;t get popular until the 1850. 但我们都知道,巧克力在1850年在流行起来。So, is it healthy? 那么,巧克力健康吗?As part of his ;Living to 100; series, Dr. Sanjay Gupta looks into that. 古普塔医生在他的“活到一百岁”系列里谈到了这个问题。The answer - sort of.是——有可能。 /201409/332772。

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201510/402100。

Japan, China hold maritime crisis talks in Tokyo中日讨论海上危机管理Japan and China have held their fourth round of talks in Tokyo on instituting a maritime crisis management mechanism.中日两国就建立海上联络机制在东京进行第四轮专家小组磋商。Both countries agreed to launch it as soon as possible, after a broad agreement is reached.中日双方达成一定共识后确认建立海上紧急联络机制。Taking part in the working level talks are officials from Japan#39;s Defense Ministry and the Maritime Self-Defense Force and China#39;s Defense Ministry.最新一轮会谈的与会者来自两国国防部及海军。They reaffirmed basic agreements to date and discussed specifics of the mechanism, including adjustments that are needed to address technical problems.双方将最终敲定细节并就机制包括技术问题在内的细节做出调整。 Article/201501/354010。

原味人文风情:The Power of Empathy同理心的力量So what is empathy? And why is it very different than sympathy?什么是同理心?为什么它和同情心那么不同?Empathy fuels connection. Sympathy drives disconnection. Empathy is very interesting.同理心激发连结。同情心促使失连。同理心是非常有趣的。Teresa Wiseman is a nursing scholar, who studied professions—very diverse professions where empathy is relevant, and came up with four qualities of empathy: Perspective taking (the ability to take the perspective of another person, or recognize their perspectives as their truth), staying out of judgment (not easy when you enjoy this as much as most of us do), recognizing emotion of another people, and then communicating that.Teresa Wiseman是名护理学者,她研究职业--与同理心相关、非常不同的职业,并提出四种同理心的特性:接受观点(接受他人观点的能力,或是认同他们的观点为他们的事实)、不加(这不容易,当你跟我们大多数人一样喜欢他人时)、看出他人的情绪、并接着与那交流。Empathy is feeling with people. And to me, I always think of empathy as this kind of sacred space when someone#39;s kind of in a deep hole, and they shout out from the bottom and they say, ;I#39;m stuck. It#39;s dark. I#39;m overwhelmed.; And then we look and we say, ;Hey,; and climb down, ;I know what it#39;s like down here, and you#39;re not alone.;同理心是与人一起感受。对我而言,我总是把同理心想成这种神圣的空间,当某人好像在一个深穴里,而他们从底部大叫,他们说:“我被困住了。这里好黑。我受不了了。”然后我们看看,我们说:“嘿”,然后爬下去说:“我知道在这下面是什么样子,你并不孤单。”Sympathy is, ;Woo! It#39;s bad, ahuh? Now, you want a sandwich?;同情心是:“哇!真糟糕啊,对吧?现在,你想要个三明治吗?”Empathy is a choice. And it#39;s a vulnerable choice because in order to connect with you, I have to connect with something in myself that knows that feeling. Rarely, if ever, does an empathic response begin with ;at least.;同理心是种选择。那是种很容易受到伤害的选择,因为为了要能与你连结,我必须连结到我自己心里能了解那感受的东西。一个同理心的回应极少(如果真的有的话)以“至少...”来开头。I had a...yeah, and we do it all the time, because, you know what, someone just shares something with us that#39;s incredibly painful, and we#39;re trying to silver lining that. I don#39;t think that#39;s a verb, but I#39;m using it as one.我有个...对,而我们总是在做这事,因为,你知道吗,某人刚与我们分享一些极为痛苦的事,而我们试着要“一线希望”它。我不认为那是个动词,但我要把它当动词用。We#39;re trying to put this silver lining around it, so ;I had a miscarriage.;我们试着要挤出一线希望,所以当人说:“我流产了。”;At least, you know you can get pregnant.;“至少你知道你能怀。”;I think my marriage is falling apart.;“我觉得我的婚姻正在破碎。”;At least, you have a marriage.;“至少你有段婚姻。”;John#39;s getting kicked out of school.;“John要被学校退学了。”;At least, Sarah, he#39;s an A-student.;“至少,Sarah,他是个优等学生。”But one of the things we do sometimes in the face of very difficult conversations is we try to make things better.但我们在面对非常难受的对话时,其中我们有时会做的一件事,是我们试着要让事情好转一点。If I share something with you that#39;s very difficult, I#39;d rather you say, ;I don#39;t even know what to say right now. I#39;m just so glad you told me,; because the truth is rarely can a response make something better. What makes something better is connection.如果我跟你分享某件非常难过的事,我宁愿你说:“我现在甚至不知该说什么好。我只是很开心你肯跟我说。”因为事实是,回应很少会让事情好转。能让事情好转的是连结。 Article/201503/365875。