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长春孕前检查哪家医院飞度快对话网长春治疗白带异常哪家医院比较好

来源:飞度新闻好专家    发布时间:2019年01月23日 18:28:10    编辑:admin         

WASHINGTON — The federal government opened the door to a new era of genetic medicine on Thursday by introducing a standard way to ensure the accuracy of DNA tests used to tailor treatments for individual patients.华盛顿——星期四,美国联邦政府提出了一种标准方法,用于确保患者定制个体化治疗时的DNA检测的准确性,可以说,此举打开了通往基因药物新时代的大门。Scientists have identified hundreds of genetic mutations that appear to increase the risk of diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer’s and cystic fibrosis. But laboratories often report different results when they analyze genes obtained from samples of the same blood or tissue, because of variations in their testing equipment and methods.科学家们现已识别出数百个可能增加特定疾病(包括癌症、阿尔茨海默氏症、囊性纤维化等)风险的遗传突变。但是,由于不同的实验室在检测设备和方法上的差异,他们在分析从同一血液或组织样本中提取的基因时,常常会报告不同的结果。The National Institute of Standards and Technology said Thursday that it had developed “reference materials” that could be used by laboratories to determine whether their machines and software were properly analyzing a person’s genetic blueprint, or genome.美国国家标准技术研究所(National Institute of Standards and Technology)在周四宣称,自己开发出了“基准材料”,各实验室可使用它来确定自己的仪器和软件能否正确地分析一个人的遗传蓝图,也就是基因组。The institute disseminates such reference materials for thousands of products including steel, concrete and peanut butter. These materials are used for myriad purposes — to calibrate instruments, to make sure buildings are safe, to ensure that nutritional labels are accurate.该研究所将基准材料推广到了钢铁、水泥和花生酱等数千种产品,使用它们来实现各式各样的目的,如校准仪器、确保建筑物的安全性、确保营养标签的准确性等等。Laboratories can use the new DNA standard to make sure their genetic testing is accurate. If labs get the right answers for the reference material — by finding the same mutations in the same places, for example — they can be confident that their testing of patient samples is similarly accurate.实验室可利用这种新的DNA标准物来确保他们基因检测的准确性。如果实验室在检测基准材料时得出了“正确”——例如,在同样的位点发现了同样的突变,则可以认为他们测试患者样本时也具有类似的准确性。The devices used by the laboratories, known as DNA sequencers, have greatly accelerated biomedical research and discovery, allowing scientists to pinpoint mutations and devise treatments tailored to the genetic characteristics of individual patients. Such tests and treatments, developed in research laboratories, are quickly moving into the practice of medicine.在实验室中,承担这类工作的设备称为DNA测序仪,有了它,科学家们就可以精确地定位突变,并针对患者个体的遗传特征量身打造个性化治疗,极大地促进了生物医学研究和发现。这类测试和治疗方法虽诞生于研究性实验室,但很快就进入了医疗实践领域。In his State of the Union address this year, President Obama announced a “precision medicine initiative” to foster the development and adoption of such customized treatments.在今年的国情咨文中,奥巴马总统宣布了“精准医疗计划(precision medicine initiative)”,旨在促进此类定制治疗方法的开发和应用。For 0, scientists and laboratories can now buy a vial of the reference material from the national standards institute, a unit of the Commerce Department. The material, for sale on the agency’s website, includes 10 micrograms of DNA from a Utah woman of European ancestry. That is enough for numerous tests.这种基准材料在美国商务部的下属单位美国国家标准学会(national standards institute)的网站上销售,现在,科学家们和实验室花450美元就可以买到一小瓶,其中含有来自犹他州的一名欧洲血统女子的10微克DNA,足够完成多次检测。“If you send a sample of blood or a tumor biopsy to different genetic testing laboratories, you can get different results,” said Marc L. Salit, the leader of a genome measurement group at the institute. “While largely in agreement, they may have significant differences. Now, for the first time, we have a standard to check the reliability and quality of gene sequencing.”“如果你把一份血液或肿瘤活检样本送到不同的基因检测实验室,你可能会得到不同的结果,”该研究所基因组测定小组的负责人马克·L·萨利特(Marc L. Salit)说。“虽然它们在大体上是一致的,但仍可能存在显著差异。现在,我们第一次有了一个可以检查基因测序质量和可靠性的(统一)标准。”A laboratory can use the samples to demonstrate the quality of its work, and health insurance companies can have confidence in the results, increasing the likelihood that they will pay for genome-sequencing tests, Dr. Salit said. Costs have come down in recent years, he added, but it still costs about ,000 to analyze and interpret a whole genome.萨利特士说,实验室可以使用该样本明自己工作的质量,医疗保险公司也会对检测结果更有信心,为基因组测序检测付费的可能性也就更大。他还补充道,虽然近年来测序成本有所下降,但全基因组的分析和解读仍需要5000美元上下。Elizabeth A. Mansfield, a geneticist at the Food and Drug Administration who supervises its work on personalized medicine, said the reference material could lead to “better instruments and better tests.” As a result, she said, “health plans may be more willing to pay for such tests.”美国食品和药品监督(Food and Drug Administration, F.D.A.)的遗传学家伊丽莎白·A·曼斯菲尔德(Elizabeth A. Mansfield)负责监管个体化医疗方面的工作,她表示基准材料将会“改善仪器和检测”。这样一来,“医保计划将更愿意为此类检测付费。”The F.D.A. worked with the standards institute to develop the DNA reference material, which gives regulators a new tool to assess the accuracy of tests.该DNA基准材料由F.D.A.和标准学会联合开发,它也给了监管部门一个评估检测准确性的新工具。“An inaccurate genome-sequencing test can lead to patients receiving the wrong diagnosis, the wrong treatment or no treatment at all, even when effective therapy is available,” said Dr. Jeffrey E. Shuren, director of the F.D.A. Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Accurate tests have become more important, he said, as treatments are increasingly based on the type of mutations detected in genetic testing.F.D.A.医疗器械和辐射健康中心(Center for Devices and Radiological Health)主任杰弗里·E·苏瑞(Jeffrey E. Shuren)说:“不准确的基因组测序检测可导致患者受到错误的诊断、接受错误的治疗或是在明明存在有效治疗手段之时未能得到治疗。”他还说,由于治疗方法正越来越多地以基因检测发现的突变类型为依据,基因检测的准确度正变得日益重要。Dr. Francis S. Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health, said that information from the tests could benefit patients in many ways. “For example,” he said, “an oncologist might use the results of a sequencing scan to choose the chemotherapy drug that is most likely to work.”美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)院长法兰西斯·S·柯林斯(Francis S. Collins)士表示,在基因检测中获得的信息可以从诸多方面为患者提供助益。“例如,肿瘤科医生可以使用测序结果来选择效果可能会最好的化疗药物。”The regulation of DNA tests and technology is complicated and in flux.DNA检测及其技术的监管非常复杂,而且变来变去。One agency, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, regulates and certifies clinical laboratories under a 1988 law. The F.D.A., a sister agency in the same department, regulates manufacturers and has authority over the actual tests. The food and drug agency has historically refrained from enforcing some of its requirements for “laboratory-developed tests,” including many genetic tests, but it proposed to overhaul and tighten regulation of these products last year.根据1988年的法律,医疗照护和医疗救助务中心(Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services)负责临床实验室的管理和认。而与该机构隶属同一部门的机构F.D.A.则负责监管制造商和已经实用的检测。F.D.A.历来未曾强制执行其对“实验室开发的检测”(包括许多基因检测)的一些要求,但该机构在去年提出,应整顿和加强对上述产品的监管。The new reference material is for tests that use advanced technology — “next-generation sequencing” — to analyze a person’s DNA. Such tests are generally interpreted by doctors or genetic counselors and not sold directly to consumers.新推出的基准材料适用于采用了先进的“下一代测序”技术来分析个人DNA的检测。此类检测的结果通常不会直接出售给消费者,而是需要经过医生或遗传咨询师的解读。In 2013, the food and drug agency told a Silicon Valley company, 23andMe, to stop selling health information reports that interpreted a person’s DNA. In February, it allowed the company to offer a direct-to-consumer test to help identify carriers of a gene linked to a specific rare disorder, Bloom syndrome.2013年,F.D.A.通知硅谷的23andMe公司暂停销售含有经解读的个人DNA信息的健康报告。今年2月,该机构却又批准这家公司提供一种直接面向消费者的检测,以帮助识别与一特殊的罕见疾病——布卢姆综合征(Bloom syndrome)相连锁的基因的携带者。The food and drug agency, expecting a wave of new technology to analyze the human genome, helped finance the work of scientists and engineers at the standards institute in Gaithersburg, Md.F.D.A.预计,新一波的人类基因组分析浪潮即将涌现,并为马里兰州盖瑟斯堡市标准学会的科学家和工程师们的工作提供了部分资助。 /201509/400018。

Alibaba, the Chinese e-commerce company, has a new partner in rooting out products deemed unsafe for American consumers, but the cooperation could also bring it more headaches.中国电商企业阿里巴巴有了一个新伙伴,帮助其根除那些被认为对美国消费者不安全的产品,但相关合作也可能会给该公司带来更多令人头痛的事情。The company, which listed its shares in New York in September, is teaming up with a ed States government agency to prevent its online platforms from exporting items to America that have been recalled. The agreement is likely to have its largest effects on Alibaba’s business-to-business site, which sells goods produced by Chinese manufacturers to American importers and businesses.9月在纽约上市的阿里巴巴正在与美国一家政府机构合作,以防止其在线平台向美国出口已被召回的货物。阿里巴巴旗下企业对企业的网站可能是受相关协议影响最大的,该网站主要面向美国进口商和企业销售中国厂家生产的商品。The agency, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, said it would provide Alibaba lists of recalled items, and in turn, Alibaba said it would ensure that those products were not for sale to companies or individuals in America. Alibaba has a small business facilitating the sale of goods to American consumers.参与合作的政府机构美国消费品安全委员会(Consumer Product Safety Commission)表示,将向阿里巴巴提供被召回产品名录,而阿里巴巴则表示将确保不面向美国的企业或个人销售相关产品。阿里巴巴旗下有一家小公司专门负责促进面向美国消费者的商品销售。The commission’s chairman, Elliot F. Kaye, cited the recall last year of high-powered magnets being sold as toys in the ed States, noting that recently some companies on Alibaba’s sites had sold the magnets wholesale.该委员会主席埃利奥特·F·凯(Elliot F. Kaye)提到了去年在美国被当做玩具销售的高性能磁铁被召回一事,并指出最近,阿里巴巴网站上的部分公司在以批发的方式销售这种磁铁。Mr. Kaye said the new cooperation would help ensure that listings for dangerous items like the magnets — which were recalled because of a number of instances in which children ingested them, frequently necessitating surgery — would no longer be purposely or inadvertently imported by smaller ed States companies.凯表示,新展开的合作将有助于确保美国小企业不再进口——不管是有意还是无意——像前述磁铁那样的危险物品。前述高性能磁铁之所以被召回,是因为发生了一些事故,儿童吞下磁铁,常常需要进行手术。The cooperation serves as a test for Alibaba, which despite taking steps to clean up its e-commerce sites, retains a reputation for selling just about any product — brand, fake or occasionally dangerous.合作是对阿里巴巴的一次考验。尽管采取了诸多举措整顿旗下的电商网站,但阿里巴巴依然因为几乎什么产品都卖而声名远扬,其网站上有品牌货,也有假货,偶尔还会有危险物品。It is also a risk. If the company fails to live up to its end of the bargain, Mr. Kaye said the commission would not hesitate to pressure the company.此举也有风险。如果阿里巴巴未能信守承诺,凯表示该委员会将毫不犹豫地迫使其就范。Though Alibaba said last month that it spent about 0 million combating the sale of fake goods on its sites in 2013 and 2014, many companies complain that Alibaba can be slow to pull down listings of pirated goods. Others point out that removed listings often quickly reappear under different names.阿里巴巴上月表示,该公司在2013年和2014年投入了超过10亿元人民币,打击旗下网站上的假货交易,但还是有许多公司不满于阿里巴巴打击盗版产品时行动迟缓。还有一些公司指出,被撤下的产品往往很快又会换个名字重新出现。“We’re certainly going to hold their feet to the fire,” Mr. Kaye said on Tuesday at the Hong Kong Toys and Games Fair.“我们肯定会让他们感到有压力,”凯周二在香港玩具展(Hong Kong Toys and Games Fair)上说。Mr. Kaye said the agency would start with a list of five to 15 products at the top of the regulator’s priority list, then expand it. The commission, which first approached Alibaba about cooperation roughly two years ago, expects problematic items to be taken down in a matter of hours, he said.凯表示,消费品安全委员会首先会提供一份名单,上面会列出该机构重点强调的五到十五种产品,然后再扩充名单。他说,大概两年前,委员会首次就合作事宜找到了阿里巴巴。该委员会希望问题商品在几小时之内下架。“We’re not a very patient lot, and if it doesn’t happen pretty quickly, then they’ll be hearing from us,” he said, adding that he hoped an automated system could be worked out.“我们可不是一群有耐心的人,如果事情未能很快得到处理,他们就会了解到我们的应对措施,”他说。他还表示希望能制定一个自动化系统。The good-faith agreement raises the more complicated issue of cross-border Internet regulations. In recent years, China has pushed hard for the ed States to accept the idea that Internet companies operating in different nations follow the rules and laws of their own nations. And countries like China have demanded that ed States companies censor content or provide their governments with private user data to remain in compliance with their laws.这个用心良苦的协议提出了更复杂的跨国互联网监管问题。近年来,中国极力要求美国接受一点,即在他国运营的互联网公司遵守自己国家的法律法规。但中国等国又要求美国公司进行内容审查,或是向政府提供用户的私人数据,以遵守它们的法律。In this case, Alibaba is agreeing to respect ed States laws.在此事中,阿里巴巴同意尊重美国法律。Discussing potential concerns about setting a precedent on Internet regulation, Mr. Kaye said, “From my perspective, there’s enough known good that will result from this that if it turns out there are unfortunate side effects, we will try to work to ameliorate those.”谈到在互联网监管方面开创先例可能存在的问题,凯说,“在我看来,此举已知的好处够多了,如果出现不利的副作用,我们将努力改善。” /201501/354738。

Novas and Supernovas新星和超新星Novas and supernovas are all variable stars created by nova outbursts.During a nova outburst, the brightness may increase over the course of a few days by several thousand or even dozens of thousands of times.Then it will gradually dim, eventually returning to its originai brightness after several or dozens of years.新星和超新星都是由新星的爆发而产生的变星。新星的爆发有时能在几天时间内将这颗星的亮度增强几千到几万倍,随后它又会渐渐暗弱下去,几年或十几年之后最终回到原来的亮度。The outbursts of supernovas are even more spectacular, increasing their brightness by up to hundreds of millions of times. The ancient Chinese people named such celestial bodies ;guest stars;. The earliest record on guest stars in China dates back to as early as in the 14th century , about a nova near the a Star on the Scorpio Constellation.超新星的爆发更加壮观,可以将这颗星的亮度增强到几百万倍,中国古人称这类天体为“客星”。中国最早的客星记载是大约公元前14世纪出现于天蝎座(心宿二)附近的一颗新星。During the period between the Shang Dynasty and the end of the 17th century,78 novas and especially 12 supernovas were recorded in China#39;s historic books.Such a rich and systematic record of supernovas is unique in the world.自商代至17世纪末,中国史书共记载了78颗新星、12颗超新星,这么丰富而又系统的超新星纪事,在世界上是独一无二的。Of all the recorded novas and supernovas, the most brilliant was the superno-va near the Tianguan Star in the Taurus constellation, which lasted two years after its outburst.在中国史书中所记载的新星、超新星中,最精的要算宋至和元年(1054年)出现在金牛座天关星附近的超新星,这颗超新星爆发后达两年之久才变暗。After the birth of the radio telescope in the 1930s, many scholars in the world,in an effort to search for the correspondence beiween the radio source in the Milky Way galaxy and the supernova, carried out detailed research on the ancient re-cords on novas and supernovas. It turned out seven of the twelve supernovas re-corded by ancient Chinese astronomers correspond to the radio source, whichshows the importance of China#39;s records on guest stars to modern astronomic re-search.20世纪30年代射电望远镜问世后,世界上许多学者为了寻找系中射电源和超新星的对应关系,无不对中国古代的新星、超新星记录做详细研究。研究明,在中国古代的12次超新星记录中,有7颗以上对应着射电源。这充分说明中国古代的客星纪事对现代天文学的研究所起的重要作用。 /201511/409359。

This week Boris Johnson, mayor of London, has been banging his drum in New York. He is not, however, promoting his ideas about Europe, the Conservative party or Winston Churchill, the subject of his latest book.伦敦市长鲍里斯#8226;约翰逊(Boris Johnson)在造访纽约的一周里一直在摇旗擂鼓。但他并非在宣传自己对于欧洲、英国保守党或是他的新书的主题——温斯顿#8226;丘吉尔(Winston Churchill)的看法。Instead, Mr Johnson is doing the cyber version of taking coals to Newcastle: telling American tech entrepreneurs that London is a cool place to work and invest. Never mind Silicon Valley or New York’s Dumbo (Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass); US entrepreneurs and investors should head to Shoreditch and Bournemouth. Or so Mr Johnson’s sales pitch goes.相反,约翰逊做的是网络版的“将煤炭带到纽卡斯尔”(纽卡斯尔是英国著名的煤炭产地,“将煤炭带到纽卡斯尔”意为多此一举——译者注)。他告诉美国高科技创业家:伦敦是一个很适宜工作和投资的地方。不要只盯着硅谷(Silicon Valley)或是纽约的小飞象街区(Dumbo);美国创业家和投资者应当奔向肖尔迪奇(Shoreditch)和伯恩茅斯(Bournemouth)。约翰逊是这样推销的。It is something of a quixotic mission but is nevertheless notable for at least two reasons. First, it offers a useful reminder of how fashions in the political economy can change. A decade or so ago, when British trade missions tried to “sell” London to New York, they talked more about banks than computer bytes. Back then, people such as Ed Balls, when he was a Treasury minister, were keen to extol London’s light touch, “principles-based” regulation as a competitive advantage versus New York.这是一项不切实际的任务,但至少有两个原因使它值得关注。首先,它不无裨益地提醒我们:政治经济的潮流会发生怎样的变化。大约10年前,当英国贸易代表团设法在纽约“推销”伦敦时,他们更多谈论的是,而非信息技术。那时,英国财政部的部长级官员埃德#8226;鲍尔斯(Ed Balls)等人热衷于将伦敦“点到为止”且“基于原则”的监管鼓吹为相对于纽约的竞争优势。These days no British politician wants to talk too much about banks, or wave a light touch regulatory regime as a lure. Memories of the 2008 crisis are too painful. Instead, the politically correct message for politicians is to extol the digital start-up scene. These companies are often small and create relatively few jobs — although the bigger tech picture is good, with a report this month suggesting that the tech industry in London employs more than 250,000 people [SOURCE?](against almost 350,000 in financial services in Greater London). This is cheering.如今,英国政界人士谁也不愿意过多谈论,或是炫耀点到为止式的监管制度,将其作为引资的诱饵。2008年金融危机留下的记忆太痛苦了。取而代之的是,如今政客们政治上正确的做法是持数字初创企业。这些企业往往规模较小,创造的就业机会也不多。但高科技企业总体局面不错——本月的一份报告显示,伦敦的高科技产业雇佣了超过25万人(相比之下,整个大伦敦区(Greater London)金融务业吸纳近35万人就业)。这值得欢呼。The second reason why Mr Johnson’s visit is striking is that it inadvertently shows the distortions that still haunt the financial world. In some ways — as the British trade team point out — London has attractive features for entrepreneurs. [WHY PLURAL - WHAT ARE WE TALKING ABOUT HERE?]It is, for example, a truly international centre and the government is (belatedly) trying to make the visa regime more liberal. [REALLY - WE HEAR A LOT OF COMPLAINTS FROM FOREIGN BUSINESS ABOUT THE OVERLYU STRICT VISA REGIME]British officials told New Yorkers this week that some visas will be provided for the employees of digital start-ups and they promised to fast track other applications. British labour costs are lower than those in San Francisco, say, [AND COMPARED WITH OTHER EUROPEAN CENTRES? BERLIN?]and there is scientific innovation aplenty sping out to the regions outside London. Cultural attitudes towards entrepreneurship are becoming more welcoming. Tech clusters are emerging, too.约翰逊的访问引人注目的第二个原因是,它无意中展示了仍在困扰金融世界的各种扭曲现象。正如英国贸易代表团所指出的,伦敦对于创业家来说在某些方面具有吸引力。例如,伦敦是一个真正的国际中心,英国政府正(姗姗来迟地)试图使签制度更加自由。就在约翰逊造访纽约的同一周,英国官员告诉纽约人,他们将为数字初创企业的部分员工提供签,并承诺加快审批其他申请。英国的劳动力成本低于美国旧金山,而且伦敦周围地区有丰富的科技创新活力。对企业家精神的文化态度也变得更加热情。高科技集群正在涌现。But the rub, as so often outside the US, is cash. [IS THIS NOT A BIG ISSUE EVERYWHERE AOUTSIDE THE US - NOT JUST LONDON. ]If you look at the raw data in isolation, the trajectory seems cheering. Last year .4bn worth of new funding was invested in digital ventures in London, while .1bn was invested across the UK as a whole. That is twice the level of 2013 — and, strikingly, 20 times higher than five years ago.但就像美国以外经常遭遇的情况一样,困难在于资金。如果只单独看原始数据的话,发展轨迹似乎值得欢庆。去年,伦敦的数字企业吸引了14亿美元的新投资,而整个英国的此类投资为21亿美元。这是2013年水平的两倍——更是比5年前高出20倍。Half of that money was supplied by US venture firms, such as Accel Partners and Union Square Capital. The Silicon Valley-based Andreessen Horowitz, for example, recently put m into a financial technology company called TransferWise. Indeed, foreign direct investment (FDI) into London is now rising faster than in Berlin and New York, according to Gerard Grech, chief executive of Tech City UK.其中一半的投资来自美国的风险投资公司,如阿塞尔伙伴公司(Accel Partners)和合广资本(Union Square Capital)。最近,位于硅谷的风投公司Andreessen Horowitz向一家名为TransferWise的金融技术公司投资了5800万美元。的确,据英国科技城(Tech City UK)行政总裁杰拉德#8226;格雷奇(Gerard Grech)介绍,现在流入伦敦的外国直接投资(FDI)的增长速度超过了柏林和纽约。But the sums remain modest compared with the US. Since 2012, American venture capital companies have invested around bn in Silicon Valley and 0bn overall, according to the National Venture Capital Association. Last year, several billion of this went to New York.但与美国相比,这些金额仍相形见绌。美国国家风险投资协会(National Venture Capital Association)数据显示,2012年以来,美国风险资本公司已在硅谷投资了约700亿美元,在全美为1600亿美元。去年,纽约吸引了其中的数十亿美元。The real issue for London tech companies is not so much finding seed capital but the finance to enable successful businesses to scale up. London-based companies can only dream of having even a fraction of the type of financial power of a company such as Uber.伦敦高科技公司面临的真正问题,与其说是寻找种子资金,不如说是安排融资使成功的企业能够扩大规模。伦敦的企业只能梦想拥有哪怕一小部分优步(Uber)之类企业的财力。Of course, if you are an optimist — as the bouncy Mr Johnson undoubtedly is — you can argue that this change will come. The Silicon Valley tech scene is now so crowded and overvalued that there is growing appetite among US investors to look overseas.当然,如果你是一个乐观主义者——充满活力的约翰逊无疑就是这样的——你可以主张这种变化会到来。硅谷的高科技企业如今已异常拥挤,而且被严重高估,因此美国投资者转向海外的欲望日渐增加。And European investors are desperate for productive places to put their cash; this is a region, after all, where trillion-worth of bonds [BILLION/ MILLION/ TRILLION]have negative yields. The continent’s banks are also keen to jump on the bandwagon.欧洲投资者也非常渴望投资于能产生高效益的地方;毕竟,欧洲2万亿美元的债券的收益率还是负值。欧洲大陆的也热切希望分得一杯羹。But the fact that half the start-up money raised in 2014 was from America, not Europe, shows the challenge. London financiers are better at devising complex derivatives trades than organising a sensible way to fund entrepreneurs on the scale that is needed. If Mr Johnson’s mission to New York helps to change this, he will deserve a rousing cheer. But it will be a slog.但是,2014年初创企业所筹资金的一半都来自美国(而非欧洲)的现实凸显了挑战。比起按照创业家所需的规模提供一种明智的融资方式,伦敦的金融家更善于设计复杂的衍生品交易。如果约翰逊的纽约之行有助于改变这一状况,他应当得到热烈欢呼。但这绝非易事。 /201503/361686。