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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年05月21日 03:06:57
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At the end of each Apple board meeting, Tim Cook, chief executive, raises the question of who should succeed him if he [steps] off the wrong curb or something. 每次苹果(Apple)董事会会议结束时,首席执行官蒂姆#8226;库克(Tim Cook)都会提出一旦他死亡或发生其他事该由谁继任的问题。It is a tribute to Mr Cook after five years at the helm of the world’s most valuable company that an accident is more likely to finish him than investor discontent.在掌管这个全球市值最高企业五年后,库克因投资者不满离职的可能性还不如发生一次事故导致他离职的可能性高,这一点是对库克的一种褒奖。Mr Cook became Apple’s chief executive in August 2011 in tragic and extremely difficult circumstances: just before the death of Steve Jobs, Apple’s co-founder and guiding genius. 2011年8月,库克是在一种悲剧性而又极端困难的氛围下担任苹果首席执行官的:当时苹果的联合创始人及天才导师史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯(Steve Jobs)已时日无多。Jobs was, as Mr Cook noted in an interview with the Washington Post, an impossible act to follow. 正如库克在接受《华盛顿邮报》(Washington Post)采访时指出的,乔布斯是不可能效仿的。It would have been a treacherous thing if I would have tried to do it, he said.库克表示:如果我试图这么做,那将是一种非常危险的行为。The impossibility is clear in how Mr Cook’s first five years are sometimes seen: as a mild disappointment. 这种不可能在库克任期头五年有时得到的评价中体现得很明显:他被认为略微叫人失望。He has presided over the launch of Apple Watch and Apple Pay but it has unveiled no blockbuster to rival the iPhone, an astonishingly successful device that now accounts for nearly 70 per cent of its revenues.他领导了Apple Watch和Apple Pay的推出,然而这两者却没有掀起可与iPhone相比的火爆。iPhone则极为成功,目前占苹果近70%的营收。It is fairer to regard his tenure from another perspective: Apple has not only remained steady but has flourished and Mr Cook has kept its senior talent largely in place. 从另一个角度看待他的任期则更公平一些:苹果不仅保持了稳定,而且还发展壮大,库克也基本将资深人才留在了岗位上。Unlike others who have succeeded charismatic and forceful founders, including John Sculley when Apple forced out Jobs in the mid-1980s, he has stopped it veering off track and managed to develop and broaden its product line.他阻止了苹果在急转弯下脱轨,并成功发展和拓宽了苹果的产品线,这与其他有领袖魅力而强势的创始人的继任者不同——包括上世纪80年代中期苹果挤走乔布斯时的约翰#8226;斯卡利(John Sculley)。Mr Cook was known before Jobs’ death as an operations specialist, the person who kept Apple’s global operations and manufacturing network running smoothly, allowing Jobs to focus on new, breakthrough products. 在乔布斯逝世前,库克是以运营专家而出名,他就是确保苹果全球业务和制造网络运营平稳的人,令乔布斯能够将精力集中于新的、突破性的产品。Mr Cook has since applied his analytical brain to Apple, making sure that neither size nor complexity gets in the way of continued progress.而自乔布斯逝世以来,库克把他分析式的头脑用到了苹果身上,确保规模和复杂性都不会成为苹果继续发展的阻碍。A lot can go wrong at any company, especially a very large one. 任何企业都有许多地方可能出错,尤其是非常大的企业。That accounts for the shortening of chief executives’ tenures. 这一点解释了首席执行官任期不断缩短的问题。It is easy to make strategic errors under pressure from consumers, shareholders and regulators, or steadily to lose touch with what made a company great. 在消费者、股东和监管机构的压力下,很容易犯战略错误,或渐渐忘掉是什么使企业伟大。Merely avoiding these pitfalls for five years is itself an achievement.仅仅是能在五年里避开这些陷阱本身,就是一大成就。In addition, Mr Cook has made his personal presence felt. 此外,库克还令人体会到了他个人的存在感。He has defied short-term shareholder pressure to return more of Apple’s 2bn cash pile and resisted the idea that he is there solely to serve their interests, rather than that of consumers and society as a whole. 他抵制了短线股东让苹果将2320亿美元现金多返还一些的压力,并抵制了认为他的职责仅仅是务于股东利益而非消费者和社会整体利益的看法。He has taken strong and salutary stands on social issues, including his declaration that he is gay.他对社会问题采取了强硬而有益的立场——其中包括宣布自己是同性恋。But this was Mr Cook’s first act. 不过,这只是库克的第一步。To achieve a decade at the helm, he must go further than exploiting the iPhone’s potential in new markets: he has to deliver an unexpected product of his own. 要想在苹果帅位待上十年,他必须比在新市场开发iPhone潜力更进一步:他必须推出属于他自己的出人意料的产品。So far, neither Apple Watch nor services such as iCloud and its App Store, despite the latter’s financial growth, amount to that.到目前为止,Apple Watch及苹果的iCloud和应用商店(App Store)等务都达不到这一点——尽管应用商店在财务上取得了巨大增长。This is a daunting challenge, given that Apple’s historic speciality is, as he puts it, insanely great products that really change the world in some way, combining hardware, software and services in a single package. 这是一个可怕的挑战。正如库克曾说过的,苹果在历史上的专长是推出能真正以某种方式改变世界的伟大到极致的产品,将硬件、软件和务熔于一炉。The company’s recent efforts to produce an Apple television have come to naught, and it is unclear whether it wants to make its own car, or merely the software to operate others.苹果最近生产苹果电视的努力已成泡影,而目前仍不清楚苹果是想自己生产汽车,还是只希望为其他品牌汽车推出操作软件。Mr Cook was a close friend of Jobs and has an ingrained sense of the company’s qualities. 库克是乔布斯的亲密朋友,对苹果的品质有着根深蒂固的感受。Perhaps only Sir Jonathan Ive, Apple’s chief design officer, knows better the products that have made it great. 也许只有苹果首席设计官乔纳森#8226;艾夫爵士(Sir Jonathan Ive)能比他更了解那些令苹果伟大的产品。In Mr Cook’s five years in charge, he has remained faithful to Jobs’ legacy; eventually, he must transcend it.在库克执掌苹果五年的时间里,他依然忠于乔布斯的遗产。而最终,他必须超越这一遗产。 /201609/464878

  

  Human Rights 美国人对人权的看法 The time is 1905. A steamship sails on a vast ocean. "Daddy, will we ever get to America?" asks a weary lad. "Soon, my child, soon," his father replies. "We've been on this ship for weeks. I wish we were back home in Russia," complained the boy. "Son, you know how they persecute Jews there. We can never go back," the father reminded him. "Will things be better in America?" the young boy asked. "I hope so," his father sighed. "Look! The Statue of Liberty!" the boy shouted. "Just like in the picture!" His father smiled. "Yes, my son," he said. "I think she's waving to us." 时间是在一九○五年,一艘汽船航行在浩瀚的大海上。「爹地,我们到底到不到得了美国啊?」一个小男孩疲惫地问道。「快到了,我的孩子,快到了。」他的父亲回答。「我们已经坐了好几个礼拜的船了,我真希望我们现在是在苏俄的家里。」男孩抱怨着。「孩子,在那儿他们怎么迫害犹太人,你是知道的,我们绝对不能回去。」这位父亲提醒着他。「在美国情况会比较好吗?」小男孩问道。「希望如此。」他的父亲叹气道。「你看!自由女神!」男孩喊着:「跟图片里的一模一样!」他的父亲微笑着说:「是啊,孩子。我想她正向我们招手呢。」 America has long been a haven for immigrants from around the world. Until the 19th century, the majority of immigrants were from northern Europe. By the mid-20th century, they were coming from all over the globe. In recent years, scores of refugees from Southeast Asia and Latin America have fled to American shores. Why? To find a sanctuary--a place where human rights are respected. 美国长久以来一直是世界各地移民们的避难所, 在十九世纪之前, 移民主要来自北欧. 到了二十世纪中期, 移民则来自全球各地. 近几年来, 很多来自东南亚和拉丁美洲的难民都逃往美国. 这是为什么呢? 为了要寻找一个避难所 -- 尊重人权的地方. The American idea of respecting human rights came from several sources. First, the colonists had been persecuted and deprived of their rights in the Old World. They realized that people's rights must be preserved. Moreover, the Bible and literature from Greece and Rome taught that people are born with basic rights. English writer John Locke emphasized that governments should protect these rights. As a result, the Declaration of Independence reflected the belief that God created all people equal. The U.S. Constitution included 10 amendments to guarantee citizens' basic rights. This "Bill of Rights" promised freedom of religion, freedom of speech and of the press, the right to bear arms and the right to a fair trial. 美国人尊重人权的概念有几个起源。首先,移民们在欧洲的旧世界中曾被迫害并被剥夺权利,因此他们深觉保护人权的必要。再者,圣经以及希腊罗马文学中都教导他们人类与生俱来的一些基本权利。英国作家约翰?洛克强调政府应保障人民这些权利。于是,独立宣言中便反映出神造世人、生而平等的意念。美国宪法中包含了十项保障国民基本人权的修正案,这些权利法案承诺给予人民信仰的自由、言论及新闻的自由、拥有武器的权利,以及拥有公平审判的权利。 Throughout American history, the belief in individual human rights has influenced government policies and laws. Slavery opponents argued that even slaves had rights as human beings. Finally, after the Civil War, slavery was outlawed. As industries developed, many people protested the poor working conditions. 纵观美国历史,尊重个人人权的信念一直影响着政府的政策和法律。反黑奴政策者认为甚至连奴隶都该拥有作为人的基本权利。终于在美国南北战争之后,法律便禁止奴隶制度的存在。随着工业的发展,很多人抗议不良的工作条件。 Eventually, laws were passed guaranteeing workers fair wages and working hours and prohibiting child labor. The Civil Rights Movement used human rights arguments in the fight against discrimination. Even today, U.S. trade relations with other countries depend on their having a positive human rights record. 最后,终于通过法案保障工人合理的工资、工时、并且禁用童工。在美国民权运动中,也以人权的基本论点来抗议各样的歧视和差别待遇。甚至在今天,美国与其它国家的贸易关系如何,也视对方是否拥有良好的人权记录而定。 Human rights have become a global concern. The cruelty of Nazi Germany illustrated the danger of not protecting human rights. As a result, the ed Nations was established in 1945 with a belief in the basic human rights of all people. Three years later, the UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This document stated that "all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights." Later, groups like Amnesty International were formed to keep an eye out for human rights abuses wherever they occur. 人权已成为全球各国关注的焦点,德国纳粹党的残酷史实即说明了罔顾人权的危险。于是,联合国在一九四五年设立,该组织深信所有人类都应拥有基本人权。三年之后,联合国正式通过世界人权宣言。这一份文件提出「所有人类生而拥有尊严及权利的平等和自由」。稍后,国际特赦组织成立,以监督防止任何违反人权的事件发生。 Most nations in the world today would agree that human beings have basic rights. Of course, different countries have different perspectives about the issue. Some governments feel the need to restrict individual rights to protect the rights of society. They resent being forced to accept America's definition of human rights. But to Americans, no matter how you define the issue, people deserve to be treated like people. 今天,世界上大部分的国家都认同人类应拥有基本的权利。当然,不同的国家会用不同的角度来看这件事。有些政府觉得有必要以限制个人权利来保障社会权利;他们痛恨被迫接受美国的人权定义。然而对美国人而言,无论你如何定义这个主题,只要是人就应该以人的方式对待他。 /200804/33377。

  Brilliant technologies transform the magical into the banal. 卓越的科技会把神奇的东西变得平淡无奇。An idea that seems outlandish to one generation becomes commonplace to the next. 曾经在一代人看来稀奇古怪的想法对于下一代人却变得稀松平常。So it has been with electricity, space flight and the internet. 电力、太空航行以及互联网都是如此。So it is likely to prove with driverless cars.因此无人驾驶汽车可能也会如此。The past few weeks have seen a flurry of announcements. 近几周这个领域接连传出许多消息。Singapore has launched the world’s first public trial of a robo-taxi service. 新加坡展开了全球首项无人驾驶出租车的公开测试。Uber and Volvo announced that they would pioneer an autonomous taxi fleet in Pittsburgh within weeks. 优步(Uber)和沃尔沃(Volvo)宣布,未来几周内,它们将率先在匹兹堡推出一自动驾驶出租车车队。Ford said it would build its first mass-market driverless car by 2021.福特(Ford)表示,将在2021年前制造其首款面向大众市场的无人驾驶汽车。To their backers, autonomous cars cannot arrive quickly enough. 对于持者而言,自动驾驶汽车越快上路越好。Conventional cars are inefficient, dangerous and dirty. 传统汽车低效、危险且肮脏。They sit idle for 95 per cent of their lives, clogging up city streets and car parks. 它们有95%的时间在闲置,堵塞着城市街道和停车场。When moving, they smash into each other, killing 3,500 people every day around the world. 在行驶中,它们会互相碰撞,全球每天有3500人死于交通事故。Ninety per cent of accidents are caused by human error. 其中90%的事故是人为失误造成的。Cars pollute the environment, accounting for 45 per cent of oil burnt.汽车污染环境,占石油消耗总量的45%。The widesp adoption of fully autonomous and, still better, electric cars could therefore be a massive boon to mankind. 因此完全自动化且质量更好的电动汽车得到广泛应用可能是人类的一大幸事。It could lead to a far more efficient use of resources, save many lives and reduce congestion and pollution. 这可能会带来资源的更有效利用、挽救很多生命并减少拥堵和污染。Futurologists envisage small fleets of shareable, connected cars constantly whizzing around our cities picking up passengers on demand. 按照未来学家的构想,一些由可分享的联网汽车组成的小型车队将时刻不停地绕着我们的城市飞驰,按照需求搭载乘客。McKinsey forecasts that 15 per cent of new cars could be fully autonomous by 2030.麦肯锡(McKinsey)预测,到2030年,15%的新车可能实现完全自动驾驶。But two obstacles block their widesp adoption. 但有两个障碍因素阻碍着自动驾驶汽车的普及。The first remains technological. 第一个仍然是技术上的。For all the astonishing advances made in recent years, it is phenomenally difficult to replicate humans as sensory beings.尽管最近几年这方面技术取得了惊人的进步,但要模仿人类打造具有感觉能力的自动驾驶系统是极其困难的。How does a car distinguish between a plastic bag blowing across a road and a runaway dog? How does a car nudge its way through a throng of people outside a football stadium?汽车如何区分一个被风吹过马路的塑料袋和一条奔跑的?汽车如何穿过足球场外拥挤的人群?Engineers argue that the genius of self-driving cars is their connectedness. 工程师辩称,自动驾驶汽车的优势在于联网。When human drivers make a mistake the individual learns from it, says one Silicon Valley pioneer. When a self-driving car makes a mistake then every other car will learn from a mistake once an engineer has fixed it. 当人类驾驶员犯错时,这个人会从中吸取教训,一位硅谷先驱表示,当一辆自动驾驶汽车犯错时,一旦工程师修复了这个问题,其他所有汽车都会相应改进。It is just a matter of time before our technology surpasses human capacity.科技超越人类能力只是早晚的事。But sceptics compare autonomous car technology with Zeno’s dichotomy paradox: every leap will take us halfway to our destination without ever reaching it.但怀疑者将自动驾驶技术比作芝诺(Zeno)的二分法悖论:每一步跳跃都是向着目的地走出剩余路程的二分之一,但永远不可能到达终点。No matter how hard the technology proves, it may be the easier part of the puzzle. 不管事实明要攻克技术有多难,它也可能是这个难题中较为容易的部分。A stiffer challenge remains the human. 更为严峻的挑战仍然是人类。Even when manufacturers and software engineers develop fully autonomous cars in which they have total trust, it will still take many years, if not decades, for them to be freely embraced by governments and consumers.即便制造商和软件工程师开发出他们自己完全信任的全自动驾驶汽车,也需要花费多年、甚至几十年时间才能得到政府和消费者的安心接纳。First, there is the instinctive human resistance to handing over control to a robot, especially given fears of cyber-hacking. 首先,人类天生反对将控制权交给机器人,特别是在担心黑客攻击的情况下。Second, for many drivers cars are an extension of their identity, a mechanical symbol of independence, control and freedom. 其次,对于多数驾驶员而言,汽车是他们身份的延伸,是独立、控制和自由的机械象征。They will not abandon them lightly.他们不会轻易抛弃汽车。Third, robots will always be held to far higher safety standards than humans. 第三,针对机器人总是要实施比人类高得多的安全标准。They will inevitably cause accidents. 它们将不可避免的导致意外。They will also have to be programmed to make a calculation that could kill their passengers or bystanders to minimise overall loss of life. 它们还必须经过编程做出可能导致乘客或行人死亡的计算,以将总体人员损失降至最低。This will create a fascinating philosophical sub-school of algorithmic morality. 这将引发一个有趣的关于算法道德的哲学问题。Many of us are afraid that one reckless act will cause an accident that causes a backlash and shuts down the industry for a decade, says the Silicon Valley engineer. That would be tragic if you could have saved tens of thousands of lives a year.我们很多人担心一个冒失的行为将导致一场事故,进而这个行业会遭到抗议并被封杀10年,那位硅谷工程师表示,如果你原本可以每年挽救数万人的生命,那么这种结果将是一场悲剧。Fourth, the deployment of autonomous vehicles could destroy millions of jobs. 第四,自动驾驶汽车的使用可能会葬送数百万个就业岗位。Their rapid introduction is certain to provoke resistance. 这些汽车的快速引入肯定会遭遇抵制。There are 3.5m professional lorry drivers in the US.美国有350万名职业货车司机。Fifth, the insurance industry and legal community have to wrap their heads around some tricky liability issues. 第五,保险行业和司法界必须埋头解决一些复杂的责任问题。In what circumstances is the owner, car manufacturer or software developer responsible for damage?在何种情况下,汽车所有者、汽车制造商或软件开发商要对损害负责?Some governments, such as those of Singapore, China and the UK, as well as several states in the US are creating permissive regulatory and legal environments. 新加坡、中国和英国等一些国家的政府以及美国几个州正在创造宽松的监管和法律环境。Regulators can certainly speed adoption by approving designated lanes for autonomous cars, for example, and devising international safety rules and standards. 监管机构无疑可以加速推动自动驾驶汽车的使用,比如说通过批准建设自动驾驶汽车专用道,以及制定国际安全规则与标准。Conversely, politicians may yet succumb to the pressure of public fears and vested interests and frustrate the roll out of self-driving cars.相反,政治人士仍可能屈于公众担忧以及既得利益群体的压力,阻碍自动驾驶汽车的应用。Autonomous car visionaries may soon be able to perfect the technology. 自动驾驶汽车的梦想家们可能很快就能完善技术。But their success may be determined by how good they are — in Stalinist terminology — as engineers of human souls.但他们能否成功可能取决于他们作为人类灵魂的工程师(用斯大林主义者的术语来说)有多优秀。 /201609/464853

  Helping Others 美国方式:帮助他人 Christmas in America means different things to different people. To some people, Christmas means brightly wrapped packages under a decorated tree. To others, it means family reunions and a wonderful meal together. To Christians, it means Jesus' birthday. Christmas also means lending a helping hand to people in need. Along with all the hubbub of shopping for presents and sending Christmas cards, many people in America take time to help others. 在美国,圣诞节对不同的人代表了不同的意义。对某些人而言,圣诞节的意义是在布置好的圣诞树底下那些包装得色鲜艳的礼物。对另外一些人而言,它的意义则是家人团圆以及共享美好的一餐。对基督徒来说,它代表了耶稣的诞生。圣诞节的意义也是向需要帮助的人伸出援手。在采购礼物及寄送圣诞卡片的一阵忙乱当中,很多美国人仍会拨出时间去帮助别人。 In America and around the world, Christmas offers many opportunities to sp "peace on earth, good will toward men." For example, Salvation Army bell ringers are a familiar sight to most Christmas shoppers. They stand outside malls and stores collecting money for the needy. Many churches and other organizations collect toys and clothes as Christmas gifts for poor families. Going caroling is another traditional way to bring cheer to neighbors--especially the elderly and people who can't get out much. The Christmas spirit encourages people to help each other in many large and small ways. 在美国及全世界各地,圣诞节提供了很多传扬「平安与世,善意与人」的机会。例如,救世军的摇铃者对大多数为圣诞节购物的人们而言,是一个熟悉的景象。他们通常会站在购物中心和商店外面,为有需要的人募钱。很多教会和其它的机构会收集玩具和衣,作为穷苦家庭的圣诞礼物。报佳音是另外一种能够将欢乐带给邻舍的传统方式,尤其是针对那些老人和无法常出门的人。圣诞节的精神鼓励人们在许多大大小小的事情上互相帮助。 /200803/32922

  Imagine this futuristic scenario: a US-led coalition is closing in on Raqqa determined to eradicate Isis. The international forces unleash a deadly swarm of autonomous, flying robots that buzz around the city tracking down the enemy.想象一下这样的未来场景:以美国为首的联军正在逼近叙利亚的拉卡(Raqqa),决心消灭“伊斯兰国”(ISIS)。多国部队出动一批致命的自主机器人,围着城市四处飞行,追踪敌人。Using face recognition technology, the robots identify and kill top Isis commanders, decapitating the organisation. Dazed and demoralised, the Isis forces collapse with minimal loss of life to allied troops and civilians.利用面部识别技术,这些机器人识别和杀死ISIS的指挥官,斩落了这个组织的头目。在联军和平民伤亡最少的情况下,瓦解了不知所措、士气低落的ISIS部队。Who would not think that a good use of technology?有谁不认为这是很好地运用了技术呢?As it happens, quite a lot of people, including many experts in the field of artificial intelligence, who know most about the technology needed to develop such weapons.事实上,有很多人不这么认为,包括人工智能领域的很多专家,他们最了解研发这种武器所需要的技术。In an open letter published last July, a group of AI researchers warned that technology had reached such a point that the deployment of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (or Laws as they are incongruously known) was feasible within years, not decades. Unlike nuclear weapons, such systems could be mass produced on the cheap, becoming the “Kalashnikovs of tomorrow.”去年7月,众多人工智能研究人员发表了一封公开信,警告称这种技术已经发展到一定程度,几年以后——而无需几十年——就有可能部署“致命自主武器系统”(Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems,它还有一个不相称的简称,Laws,意为“法律”)。不像核武器,这类系统可以以低廉成本大规模生产,成为“明天的卡拉什尼科夫步(Kalashnikov,即AK-47)”。“It will only be a matter of time until they appear on the black market and in the hands of terrorists, dictators wishing to better control their populace, warlords wishing to perpetrate ethnic cleansing,” they said. “Starting a military AI arms race is a bad idea, and should be prevented by a ban on offensive autonomous weapons beyond meaningful human control.”“它们早晚会出现在黑市上,落入恐怖分子、希望更好地控制民众的独裁者和想要进行种族清洗的军阀的手中,”他们表示,“在军用人工智能领域开启一场军备竞赛是一个坏主意,应该对超出人类有效控制的攻击性自主武器施加禁令,以防止这样的军备竞赛。”Aly, the US has broadly forsworn the use of offensive autonomous weapons. Earlier this month, the ed Nations held a further round of talks in Geneva between 94 military powers aiming to draw up an international agreement restricting their use.美国大体上已承诺放弃使用攻击性自主武器。本月早些时候,联合国(UN)在日内瓦举行了有94个军事强国参加的新一轮谈判,旨在拟定一项限制此类武器使用的国际协定。The chief argument is a moral one: giving robots the agency to kill humans would trample over a red line that should never be crossed.主要论据是道德层面上的:赋予机器人杀人的代理权,将越过一条永远不应被越过的红线。Jody Williams, who won a Nobel Peace Prize for campaigning against landmines and is a spokesperson for the Campaign To Stop Killer Robots, describes autonomous weapons as more terrifying than nuclear arms. “Where is humanity going if some people think it’s OK to cede the power of life and death of humans over to a machine?”因为开展反对地雷的运动而获得诺贝尔和平奖的乔迪#8226;威廉斯(Jody Williams)是“阻止杀手机器人运动”(Campaign To Stop Killer Robots)的发言人,他表示自主武器比核武器更可怕。“如果一些人认为把人类的生杀大权交给一台机器是可以的,人性又何以处之?”There are other concerns beyond the purely moral. Would the use of killer robots lower the human costs of war thereby increasing the likelihood of conflict? How could proliferation of such systems be stopped? Who would be accountable when they went wrong?除了纯粹的道德问题以外,还有其他令人担忧的问题。杀手机器人会降低战争中的人员成本,爆发冲突的可能性是否会因此提高?如何阻止这类系统的扩散?当它们出问题的时候谁来负责?This moral case against killer robots is clear enough in a philosophy seminar. The trouble is the closer you look at their likely use in the fog of war the harder it is to discern the moral boundaries. Robots (with limited autonomy) are aly deployed on the battlefield in areas such as bomb disposal, mine clearance and antimissile systems. Their use is set to expand dramatically.在一个哲学研讨会上,反对杀手机器人的道德理由已是足够明显。问题在于,你越是近距离地观察它们在战争硝烟中可能的用处,就越难分辨出道德的界限。(有限自主的)机器人已经被用于战场上,应用在拆弹、排雷和反导系统等。它们的应用范围还将大为扩大。The Center for a New American Security estimates that global spending on military robots will reach .5bn a year by 2018 compared with the bn forecast to be spent on commercial and industrial robots. The Washington-based think-tank supports the further deployment of such systems arguing they can significantly enhance “the ability of warfighters to gain a decisive advantage over their adversaries”.据新美国安全中心(Center for a New American Security)估测,到2018年,全球范围内在军用机器人方面的出将达到每年75亿美元。相比之下,该机构预测用于商业和工业机器人的出将为430亿美元。这家位于华盛顿的智库持进一步利用这类系统,主张它们能够显著提高“作战人员取得凌驾对手的绝对性优势的能力”。In the antiseptic prose it so loves, the arms industry draws a distinction between different levels of autonomy. The first, described as humans-in-the-loop, includes predator drones, widely used by US and other forces. Even though a drone may identify a target it still requires a human to press the button to attack. As vividly shown in the film Eye in the Sky , such decisions can be morally agonising, balancing the importance of hitting vital targets with the risks of civilian casualties.军工界用其最爱使用的置身事外的论调,对机器人不同的自主等级进行了区分。第一类被称为“人在环中”(humans-in-the-loop),包括被美军和其他军队广泛使用的“捕食者”无人机。即使一架无人机或许能够识别目标,还是需要一个人类来按下攻击按钮。就像电影《天空之眼》(Eye in the Sky)生动地体现出来的,这类决策可能会给人带来道德上的痛苦,你需要在打击关键目标和造成平民伤亡的风险之间进行权衡。The second level of autonomy involves humans-in-the-loop systems, in which people supervise roboticised weapons systems, including anti-aircraft batteries. But the speed and intensity of modern warfare make it doubtful whether such human oversight amounts to effective control.第二级的自主是“人在环中系统”(humans-in-the-loop system),人对机器人武器系统进行监督,包括防空炮。但现代战争的速度和强度让人怀疑这种人类的监督能否形成有效控制。The third type, of humans-out-of-the-loop systems such as fully autonomous drones, is potentially the deadliest but probably the easiest to proscribe.第三类是“人在环外系统”(humans-out-of-the-loop system),比如完全自主的无人机,这种可能是最致命的,但也很可能是最容易禁止的。AI researchers should certainly be applauded for highlighting this debate. Arms control experts are also playing a useful, but frustratingly slow, part in helping define and respond to this challenge. “This is a valuable conversation,” says Paul Scharre, a senior fellow at CNAS. “But it is a glacial process.”人工智能研究人员通过发表公开信,引起人们对这场辩论的关注,这一举动当然值得赞扬。军备控制专家在帮助定义和应对这一挑战方面起到有用的作用,但他们的行动步伐却慢得让人沮丧。“这是一次有价值的对话,”新美国安全中心的保罗#8226;沙勒(Paul Scharre)说,“但这是一个极其缓慢的过程。”As in so many other areas, our societies are scrambling to make sense of fast-changing technological realities, still less control them.就像在其他很多方面一样,我们的社会在试图理解快速变化的技术现实方面就已穷于应付,更别提加以控制了。 /201605/443202Apple’s flagship store in Wangfujing, a central shopping district in Beijing, is a hive of activity. But, unfortunately for the iPhone maker, most people are not there to buy. 坐落在北京市中心商业区王府井的苹果(Apple)旗舰店人头攒动,但对iPhone的制造商来说,遗憾的是,大多数人来这里并不买手机。Part of the problem may be short term, according to staff in the shop. Many Chinese are putting off buying an Apple device until the new iPhone 7 model comes out in September, says an employee, who adds that a lull in sales before a big launch is to be expected. “There’s no reason for any concern; when the new phone comes out sales will pick up,” he says.店内员工表示,一部分问题可能是短期的。一位店员表示,许多中国人现在推迟购买苹果设备,要等今年9月iPhone 7上市。他补充称,在推出重大产品前销售停滞是意料之中的。他说:“没有理由担忧;当新手机推出时,销量就会上升。”Liu Shan, a matronly woman guiding her teenage cousin around the store, is one of the few seemingly in the shop to buy a phone — but even she fails to show the sort of devoted Apple fandom that made China the company’s largest market outside the US.刘珊(音译)是一位看似家庭主妇的女士,她带着十几岁的表同来。她是店内似乎会买手机的少数人之一,但从她身上看不到“果粉”的那种痴迷——正是这些果粉让中国成为苹果在美国以外的最大市场。“She’s just a student,” she says of her youthful charge, flicking through a display of iPads, “so there’s no need to wait for an iPhone 7. We’re very pragmatic.”浏览着iPad的展示画面,刘珊谈到自己的表时表示:“她只是个学生,因此没有必要等待iPhone 7上市。我们非常务实。”This lack of excitement points to the bigger problem Apple faces in China. A drop in revenues in the country by a third last quarter signalled to some that the company’s capacity to dazzle smartphone shoppers has been diminished amid stiffer competition from cheaper local competitors producing more technologically advanced devices.这种缺乏热情的表现反映出苹果在中国面临更大的问题。上季度苹果在华收入下降三分之一,这让一些人觉得,随着来自产品物美价廉的本土厂商的竞争加剧,苹果让智能手机购买者迷恋的能力下降了。The fall in sales should not have come as a surprise. Baidu, China’s biggest search engine, used a fall in search queries as a proxy for foot traffic to Apple stores to correctly predict a 23-34 per cent year-on-year fall in Apple’s quarterly revenues in China.人们不应对苹果销售下降感到意外。中国最大的搜索引擎百度(Baidu)用搜索查询数量的下降作为苹果商店客流量的晴雨表,正确地预测苹果在华季度收入同比下降23%-34%。Chinese smartphone users are no longer buying into the hype as they once did. When Apple first launched an iPhone in 2009, the smartphone was a status symbol for young Chinese middle class consumers.中国智能手机用户不再像过去那样跟风购买。当2009年苹果首次在中国销售iPhone时,拥有一部iPhone是中国年轻的中产阶级消费者有地位的象征。Apple consolidated its position with the release of several new phones aimed at the local market, briefly pushing the group to the top of China’s smartphone market last year.苹果针对中国市场发布了数款新手机,巩固了其地位,去年一度占据中国智能手机市场份额的头把交椅。But Xiang Ligang, an expert on China’s telecommunications sector, says that Apple now faces a challenge in “keeping itself interesting” in China, namely that the group was “looking like a trend follower these days”.但中国电信业专家项立刚表示,苹果目前在中国面临“保持自身有趣”的挑战,也就是说该集团“最近看起来就像是潮流跟随者”。Crucially, local rivals have caught up with, and in some cases exceeded, the sort of technological advances that were once the calling card of the US tech group. 关键问题是,技术上的先进一度是这家美国科技公司的名片,但本土竞争对手已经迎头赶上,在某些情况下还有所超越。Rumours suggest that the forthcoming iPhone 7 will have a dual-lens camera, for example, but by the time it launches in September “it will look old”, says Mr Xiang.项立刚表示,比如有传言称,即将发布的iPhone 7将会有双摄像头,但到9月发布时,“这种配置将会显得过时”。Many competitors aly have dual-lens cameras on their newer phones, such as Huawei’s P9 launched in April, and Xiaomi’s Redmi Pro. 许多竞争对手已经在新款手机上配置了双摄像头,比如华为(Huawei)今年4月推出的P9,以及小米(Xiaomi)推出的红米Pro。“The Chinese phonemakers are fast catching up with Apple in quality and performance, and the consumer mindset is also evolving,” says Mr Xiang. “Some users will always associate Apple with wealth and taste but, for a lot of users, sporting a Huawei or Oppo will no longer cause them to lose face.”项立刚表示:“中国手机制造商迅速在品质和性能上追赶苹果,消费者心态也在转变。一些用户始终会把苹果与财富和品位联系在一起,但对许多用户来说,拿着华为或Oppo手机将不再让他们感到丢脸。”Getting China right is important for Apple; until the previous quarter, it was the company’s fastest-growing market.对苹果来说,搞定中国市场非常重要。截止上季度,中国还是苹果增长最快的市场。The drop in sales in China has added to Apple’s troubles as it faces a number of setbacks in the country, from a spurious copyright infringement lawsuit — alleging a Chinese company owned the iPhone trademark — to a ban on its iTunes service.苹果在中国麻烦缠身,从假冒商标侵权诉讼——起诉一家拥有iPhone商标的中国公司——到iTunes视频务被禁,而在中国市场销售下降更是雪上加霜。But devices are core to its success. Apple has ceded ground to Huawei, as well as to relatively unknown brands such as Oppo and Vivo, who took the top three slots respectively in market share rankings for the second quarter, according to Canalys, the research group.但设备是其成败的关键。苹果已经将部分市场份额拱手让给华为,以及Oppo和Vivo等相对不太出名的品牌。根据市场研究公司Canalys的数据,在今年二季度,华为、Oppo和Vivo分别占据中国市场份额前三甲位置。Research by Counterpoint Technology, the market research firm, shows that Oppo passed Huawei in the second quarter to become the top-selling smartphone in China, with 22 per cent market share.市场研究公司Counterpoint Technology的研究显示,Oppo在二季度超过华为,成为中国市场最畅销的智能手机,占据22%的市场份额。Oppo and Vivo, both largely unknown brands abroad, are both owned by BBK Electronics, based in the southern city of Dongguan.在国外没什么名气的Oppo和Vivo都隶属总部位于东莞的步步高电子(BBK)旗下。Apple in the previous quarter came fifth in China, accounting for a market share of 9 per cent, just ahead of Samsung, according to Canalys.Canalys的数据显示,苹果上季度在中国市场排名第五,占据9%的市场份额,仅领先于三星。China’s smartphone market grew 3 per cent in the last quarter, according to the group.该集团表示,中国智能手机市场规模在上季度增长3%。Research from Piper Jaffray estimated that mainland China accounted for 15 per cent of Apple sales in the quarter, adding that part of the drop can be accounted for by an inventory drawdown and that the numbers “look worse than they are”.Piper Jaffray在研究报告中估计,苹果上季度销售的15%来自中国内地。该机构补充称,销售下降在一定程度上可以说是去库存造成的,而且数据“看起来比实际情况糟糕”。Bryan Ma, analyst at IDC, the research firm, says Chinese consumers quickly tire of last year’s, or even last month’s, model. “One of Apple’s problems in China is its product refreshes#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;or lack thereof,” he says.研究公司IDC的分析师马伯远(Bryan Ma)表示,中国消费者迅速厌烦了去年、乃至上月的机型。他说:“苹果在中国的问题之一是产品更新换代……或者更新换代不力。”The fickleness of the savvy Chinese consumer has aly caused problems for rivals, which have also struggled to stay on top of the China smartphone market. Previous years have seen Samsung and Xiaomi topping the charts at some point only to fall back.长了见识的中国消费者如今不再忠诚于某个品牌,这已经对竞争对手们造成了问题,后者也很难持续占据中国智能手机市场的榜首位置。一度位列榜首的三星和小米在前几年排名已经下降。Crucial to staying relevant is to promise something new. Mr Ma says the worry for Apple is that supposedly leaked images of the iPhone 7 appear to show little difference from the iPhone 6S. 贴合市场需求的关键在于承诺推出新产品。马伯远表示,对苹果来说,令人担忧的是,从据说是iPhone 7泄露的照片看,这款手机的外观似乎与iPhone 6S没有多大不同。“Apple needs to make sure that the next product looks noticeably different from the previous version, as the physical appearance is critical in market such as China where iPhones are viewed as status symbols”.“苹果需要确保下一款产品看起来与前款产品明显不同,因为在iPhones被视为地位象征的中国等市场,物理外观非常重要。” /201608/459851

  

  An online underground market selling bank card data recently exposed by CCTV enables buyers to obtain the personal information of over 1,000 card owners within five minutes.最近,央视曝光了一个贩卖卡数据的网上黑市,买家可以在5分钟内获取1000多名持卡人的个人信息。Detailed bank card information including the owne#39;s name, card number, password, cell phone number and ID card number can be bought on the market, a self-proclaimed whistle-blower surnamed Xu told China Central Television (CCTV).一名自称姓徐的告密者告诉中央电视台,持卡人姓名、卡号、密码、手机号码和身份号等卡详细信息在这个黑市上都可以买得到。According to CCTV, the information collectors would send bank card users text messages with links to phishing sites, set up free Wi-Fi signals, or use converted POS machines to hack or steal users#39; information.央视报道称,信息收集者可通过向卡用户发送含钓鱼网站链接的短信、设置免费Wi-Fi信号、利用改装POS机破解或窃取用户信息。Those who illegally transferred victims#39; money would infect victims#39; cell phones with viruses or disrupt their cell phones#39; signals in order to intercept the verification codes, which are sent by bank companies to perform operations such as money transfers or password changes.不法分子通过让受害者的手机中毒或干扰其手机信号,拦截金融机构进行转账、改密码等业务时发送的验码,将受害者钱财转走。Those who completed the illegal transfers could receive commission of 30 to 50 percent.之后,那些完成非法汇款的人将获得30%-50%的佣金。Pei Zhiyong, an anti-fraud expert at Qihoo 360 Technology Company, told CCTV that the company could detect 5,000 to 8,000 phishing sites every day that could receive a total of over 100 million clicks in half a day.奇虎360科技公司的反诈骗专家裴智勇接受CCTV采访时表示,每天该公司都能检测到5000-8000个钓鱼网站,而就在短短半天内,就能收到总量超过1亿的链接。 /201604/437318。

  退休后去哪里?澳洲最受青睐Australia ranks tops for retirementAustralia is the country most workers and retirees around the world would like to live in 20 years' time, an international survey found. Australia is the country most workers and retirees around the world would like to live in 20 years' time, an international survey found.However, most Australians are unaware of how they will fund their retirement, the poll concluded.The Retirement Scope survey conducted by French insurance giant AXA questioned workers from 26 countries, with two-thirds of Australian respondents unaware of the source of their retirement income or how much they would need.Australians ranked as more aware than people from France, Spain or Indonesia, but behind those in Malaysia where more than half of workers can "put their finger on their retirement income", Fairfax newspapers report.On the other hand, Australia's relaxed lifestyle and climate were its biggest attractions for retirees around the world, who voted it the most desirable place to retire to, although Australian respondents preferred New Zealand.Australia came out above the ed States and Switzerland.The survey of 15,000 people found the average income of Australian retirees was ,917 a month, while the cost of average household expenses is ,437 a month."The survey found that the average retirement age among Australians is 57 years of age, and that 'old' is at 80 years, giving Australians 23 'bonus years' in which to enjoy a healthy and active retirement," AXA general manager of sales and marketing Adrian Emery told Fairfax. (Agencies) 一项世界范围调查发现,澳大利亚是世界各地众多劳动者和退休人士最向往的晚年居住地。然而,多数澳大利亚人对于自己的退休金问题却一无所知。该项由法国保险业巨头AXA集团开展的“退休知多少”调查共对26个国家的劳动者进行了访问。调查发现,三分之二的澳大利亚受访者不知道他们的退休金来源以及自己究竟需要多少退休金。据《费尔费克斯》报业报道,澳洲人对于退休金问题的了解强于法国、西班牙和印度尼西亚人,但要逊色于马来西亚人。调查显示,超过一半的马来西亚受访者“对自己的退休金问题了如指掌”。另一方面,对于世界各地的退休人士来说,澳大利亚悠闲的生活方式和宜人的气候是最吸引他们的地方。然而,尽管澳洲被评为最令人向往的退休居住地,但澳大利亚本国人却更青睐新西兰。美国和瑞士位居澳大利亚之后。该项共有1.5万人参加的调查发现,澳洲人的退休金为平均每月1917澳元,家庭平均月开为1437澳元。AXA集团营销总监阿德里安#8226;埃默里在接受《费尔费克斯》报业的采访时说:“调查发现,澳洲人的平均退休年龄为57岁,而(多数人认为)80岁才是老年阶段的开始,所以澳洲人可享受23年拥有退休金、健康而有活力的退休生活。” /200801/25845

  

  

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