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2019年03月27日 08:08:47|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度管家公立医院

Business商业Corporate fraud公司欺诈行为Mind your language谨言慎行How linguistic software helps companies catch crooks语言识别软件帮助公司擒获不法之徒IN THE film ;Superman 3;, a lowly computer programmer (played by Richard Pryor, pictured) embezzles a fat wad of money from his employer.在电影《超人3》中,一位地位低的电脑程序员(上图,理查德?普莱尔[Richard Pryor]饰演)盗走雇主一大笔钱。The boss laments that it will be hard to catch the thief, because ;he wont do a thing to call attention to himself. Unless, of course, he is a complete and utter moron.;老板悲伤至极,哀嚎着抓住窃贼可不容易,因为;窃贼可不会显露自己的踪迹,除非他完全是个十足的傻瓜。;Just then the thief screeches into the car park in a brand new red sports car, radio blaring.就在此时,窃贼溜到停车场,钻进一辆全新的红色跑车中,广播大声响起。In the real world, embezzlers are seldom so obvious.现实世界中,盗贼很少如此名目张胆。The traditional way to snare them is to hire an accountant to scrutinise accounts for anomalies.要抓到他们的传统方法就是雇佣一位会计,审查账户不正常交易。But this is like looking for a contact lens in a snowdrift.但是这就像是在飘雪中找寻隐形眼镜(大海捞针)。So firms are turning to linguistic software to narrow the search.因此,公司就借助语言识别软件来缩小搜查范围。Rip-offs tend to occur in what gumshoes call the ;fraud triangle;: where incentive, rationalisation and opportunity meet.盗窃常常出现于侦探所说的;诈骗三因素;,即动机、理由及机会三者相满足的时候。To spot staff with the incentive to steal (over and above the obvious fact that money is quite useful), anti-fraud software scans e-mails for evidence of money troubles.(除了找到急需用钱的明显事实外)为了识别有偷窃动机的员工,反欺诈侦破软件搜寻邮件寻找有财务问题的据。Phrases like ;under the gun; and ;make sales a; can indicate that an employee is desperate for a bit extra.或许像;债台高筑;与;限额销售;会表明有雇员急需一笔意外之财。Spotting rationalisation is harder.要找到合理的理由就更难。One technique is to identify those who seem unhappy about their jobs, since some may rationalise wrongdoing by telling themselves that their employer is an evil corporation that deserves to be ripped off.一种技巧就是找到似乎对自己的工作不满意的员工,因为有些人可能会告诉自己雇主是家品行不端的公司,遭到窃取利索应当,以此为自己的犯罪行为找到理由。Ernst amp; Young (Eamp;Y), a consultancy, offers software that purports to show an employees emotional state over time: spikes in trend-lines ing ;confused;, ;secretive; or ;angry; help investigators know whose e-mail to check, and when.安永会计师事务所多提供的软件据称可追踪雇员不同时间内的情绪变化:趋势线中的峰值显示;困惑;,;秘密;或;愤怒;,帮助调查者知道该检查谁的电子邮件,何时检查。Other software can help firms find potential malefactors moronic enough to gripe online, says Jean-Fran?ois Legault of Deloitte, another consultancy.还有其他软件可以帮助公司发现在网上抱怨的笨蛋,识别潜在罪犯,另一会计师事务所德勤的Jean-Fran?ois Legault说。To work well, linguistic software must adjust to the way different people talk.为了产生效果,语言识别软件必须根据不同人群的交谈方式调整侦测。For example, when software gurus at Eamp;Y looked at e-mails among financial traders, their first impression was that ;these guys hair is on fire,; recalls Vincent Walden, a fraudbuster at the firm. The e-mails were packed solid with swear-words.例如,安永公司的软件专家检查金融交易员彼此的电子邮件时,他们的第一反应就是;这些小伙子火气很大;,该公司的反欺诈专员文森特?瓦尔登(Vincent Walden)说。But this is how traders normally talk.这些电子邮件中特别多的污言秽语。It is when they go quiet that the software must prick up its electronic ears.但交易员通常就是这么讲话。反倒是在交易员安静无声的时候,该软件必须保持警惕。Dick Oehrle, the chief linguist on the project, explains how it works.该项目的首席语言学家Dick Oehrle特别讲解了该软件的工作原理。First, the algorithm digests a big bundle of e-mails to get used to employees language.首先,计算程序中输入众多电子邮件,以熟悉雇员的语言。Then human lawyers code the same e-mails, sorting things as irrelevant, relevant or serious.然后由人类律师将同类邮件分为;无关;,;相关;或;严重;等级别。The human feedback and the computers results are then reconciled, so the system gets smarter.人类反馈与电脑结果达成一致,那么这个系统就会变得灵巧。Mr Oehrle says the lawyers also learn from the computers (presumably such things as empathy and the difference between right and wrong).Oehrle先生说,律师也可通过电脑学习东西(例如移情、对错的区别这些都有可能)。To find employees with the opportunity to steal, the software looks for what snoops call ;out of band; events: messages such as ;call my mobile; or ;come by my office; suggest a desire to talk without being overheard.为了找到有盗窃机会的雇员,该软件搜寻侦探所说的;域外;情形:例如;打我电话;或;来我办公室;这类信息就表明不想谈话被听到。E-mails between an employee and an outsider that contain the words ;beer;, ;Facebook; or ;evening; can suggest a personal relationship.雇员与公司外的人之间的电子邮件含有;啤酒;、;Facebook;或;晚上;这类词汇就表明私交过密。Your e-mails may be aired in court您的电子邮件有可能作为成堂供物Financial Tracking Technologies, a firm based in Connecticut, goes a step further, making software that can go through calendar apps and travel-expense claims to determine who has come into contact with certain outside investors.总部位于康涅狄格州的金融追踪技术公司(Financial Tracking Technologies)跟进一步,做出的软件可以搜寻日历应用程序及出差报销单,以确认哪位成与某个外部投资商联系。This can be married with information about the timing of trades: for example, a short sale before the public release of bad news, says Tony Turner, the companys boss.该软件可与交易时机有关的信息联系到一起:如在坏消息公开之前抛售。该公司所有者托尼?特纳(Tony Turner)说。Or consider a broker who e-mails someone a question about the trading volume at which a certain stock would be likely to rise (or fall).或者审核交易员向某人发送邮件询问可能影响某只股票升(或跌)的交易数量。This might indicate an interest in manipulating the price.这就有可能表明有操纵价格的倾向。So the software will sift through other data to see if the broker would benefit, even indirectly, perhaps by increasing the value of a derivative in his personal portfolio, says Frederic Boulier, a Paris-based director of NICE Actimize, an American firm.因此该软件要过滤其他数据,以确定该交易员是否有可能(甚至是间接)通过增加个人投资组合中一个衍生品的价值来获利,总部位于巴黎的美国公司NICE Actimize的经理Frederic Boulier说。Employers without such technology are ;operating blind;, says Alton Sizemore, a former fraud detective at Americas FBI.侦测人员没有此类技术的协助就会;盲目操作;,一位前美国联邦调查局反欺诈探员奥尔顿?希斯莫尔(Alton Sizemore)说。They often pursue costly investigations based on hunches, which are usually wrong, he says.根据直觉进行的调查通常是错误的,而且耗费很高,他说。Mr Sizemore, who now works for Forensic/Strategic Solutions, an anti-fraud consultancy in Alabama, reckons that nearly all giant financial firms now run anti-fraud linguistic software, but fewer than half of medium-sized or small financial firms do.希斯莫尔先生先任职于总部位于阿拉巴马州的反欺诈咨询公司法庭/战略解决方案公司(Forensic/Strategic Solutions),他认为几乎所有大型金融公司现在都有反欺诈语言识别软件,但是投入力度仍不及中小型金融公司的一半。So there is plenty of room for growth.因此,此类软件还有很大的增长空间。NICE Actimize says its revenues are steadily rising, though it declines to give figures.NICE Actimize说该公司的收益逐年上升,但其拒绝提供数据。Prospective users typically pay for a single ;snapshot; search of 12 months of company records, according to APEX Analytix, a developer of the software in Greensboro, North Carolina.据位于北开罗莱纳州格林斯罗的软件开发商APEX Analytix称,潜在用户特别会购买公司全年12月数据;快照;搜寻的单一务。For a company with 10,000 employees, this costs about ,000.对一间有万名员工的公司来说,此项花费约4.5万美元。Unless a company is very small, evidence of fraud almost always surfaces, convincing clients to sign up for a yearly package that costs three or four times as much as a spot-check, says John Brocar of APEX Analytix.除非公司规模很小,使用软件欺诈的据总会查到,APEX Analytix公司的约翰?罗卡(John Brocar)意图说客户签购要比抽查贵两到三倍的全年软件包时说。Why spend the money?为什么要花这笔钱?Partly because no one likes to be ripped off.部分原因是没有公司愿意被窃取资产。But also because laws on bribery (which is harder to spot than theft) have grown tougher.而且也因为贿赂(这要比偷窃更难监察)监管法律越来越严厉。American bosses can in theory be jailed if their underlings grease palms.如果美国公司的老总们的下属有贿赂行为,理论上他们也会受刑。Jonas Dischl-Luell of AWK Group, a Swiss firm, sells software that scans e-mail addresses to see if any employees are in contact, even indirectly, with officials in corrupt governments.瑞士AKW集团的Jonas Dischl-Luell销售搜寻电子邮件地址,查看是否有员工与腐败政府的官员有往来,甚至是间接往来。If a company shows it has systems in place to detect this kind of thing, and starts investigating before outsiders do, it may have an easier time in court.如果一间公司明已安装侦查此类行为的系统,并在外部进行调查前已先行展开调查,那么在法庭上便有据可出,从容应对。 /201210/206854

Obituary;Alan Sillitoe讣告;艾伦·西利托Alan Sillitoe, writer, died on April 25th, aged 82英国作家艾伦·西利托于2010年4月25日辞世,享年82岁English working men had been heard from before. Piers Plowman, chancing one summer day upon a field of folk; John Clares shepherd, observing cabbage fields and nesting birds; D.H. Lawrences taciturn miners, washing off their grime before the fire. But the toiler on the assembly line had never spoken up so loudly until Alan Sillitoe, in “Saturday Night and Sunday Morning” (1958), produced Arthur Seaton.英国劳动者的文学形象以前便出现过:皮尔斯·普洛曼曾在某个夏日与一群田野莽夫不期而遇;约翰·克莱尔笔下的牧羊人会耐心观察卷心菜地和筑巢的飞鸟;D·H·劳伦斯描述的那些沉默寡言的矿工则会在炉火前洗掉他们身上的污垢。但是,这些生产线上的人物形象从未发出过多响亮的声音。直到艾伦·西利托于1958年写出小说《周六晚和周日晨》——主人公亚瑟·西顿的诞生才宣告终结这种局面。Twenty-one-year-old Arthur, between chamfering and drilling to produce 1,400 parts a day at the Raleigh bicycle factory in Nottingham (“Forty-five bob dont grow on trees”), led a life of rampant cuckoldry with Brenda (“so lush and loving”) in Strelley Woods. “Time flies and no mistake,” sighed Arthur,二十一岁的亚瑟终日劳作于诺丁汉Raleigh自行车厂的倒棱和钻孔车床间,每天可生产1400个零件(“45先令可不大好挣”)。而在斯特雷利伍兹,他又过着与有夫之妇布伦达(“如此性感深情”)私通的浪荡生活。“时间真是过得飞快,”亚瑟叹道and its about time it did because Ive done another two hundred and Im y to go home and get some snap and the Daily Mirror or look at whats left of the bathing tarts in the Weekend Mail. But Brenda, I cant wait to get at her…And now this chamfer-blade wants sharpening.总算是过去了,瞧我又做了200个(零件),正要回家呢,来点脆饼,读下《每日镜报》,没准还能瞅瞅《周末邮报》上那帮泡澡的骚娘们儿。但是,布伦达,我的美人儿,我可是急着要去见她……现在倒好,这块倒角刀片还得磨快点。This cocky bastard, soon personified in film by Albert Finney, gave English society a shock, besides its first full description of a backstreet abortion with hot gin and boiling bath-water. But Mr Sillitoe spoke too, in the voice of Smith in “The Loneliness of the Long-Distance Runner” (1959), for the petty-criminal underclass, Borstal boys:不久,这个自以为是的浑蛋就被搬上荧幕,由艾伯特·芬尼担纲主演。亚瑟的出现带给英国社会一次强烈的震撼,小说还首次完整描述了那种借助辛辣的杜松子酒与滚烫的洗澡水而非法堕胎的过程。而在1959年创作的小说《一名长跑运动员的孤独》中,作家借主人公史密斯之口也为那些轻微犯罪的草根阶层——教养院男孩发言:I didnt think about anything at all, because I never do when Im busy, when Im draining pipes, looting sacks, yaling locks, lifting latches, forcing my bony hands and lanky legs into making something move, hardly feeling my lungs going in-whiff and out-whaff…When Im wondering whats the best way to get a window open or how to force a door, how can I be thinking?我根本不去考虑任何事,因为当我忙个不停,当我在弄排水管,在偷面粉袋,在撬锁,在拉插销,在强迫我瘦骨嶙峋的双手配合细长的双腿一起挪开东西,在几乎感觉不到我的肺是在吸气还是在呼气的时候,我是从不会走神的……当我正寻思着这世上有没有什么能凿开窗户或打开房门之类的完美诀窍时,你教我如何去想别的?Mr Sillitoe gave voices and identities to the street-crowds of post-war Britain, working in industries that were aly dying, living for football and televisions on the never-never and Saturday-night binges in which pints of ale led rapidly to a fist in the face and the cold, hard pavement. Standing at the lathe as Mr Sillitoe had stood, they dreamed of “marvellous things”.西利托为战后英国那些街头游民注入了血肉和灵魂。这些人在濒临死亡的产业中艰难求存,为足球和分期付款才能买到的电视而活,为周六夜晚的短暂狂欢而活——他们灌下数品脱的麦芽啤酒过后便能迅速导致一场殴斗,拳头会落在脸上,人就会躺在僵冷的路上。如同西利托往日那样,站在车床旁边的他们也会梦想着那些“绝妙的事物”。And they would not kowtow to anyone, whether rate-checker, foreman, boss or government. They dreamed—if they could get the whip hand, which they never would—of blowing all these boggers sky-high with dynamite, or sticking them up against a wall. It was not a communist thing. Mr Sillitoe was feted in the Soviet Union, but carried back an image of heartless chaos. Capitalism and communism both robbed a man of freedom. Mr Sillitoes heroes defied all systems and were part of no class, except “us” versus “them”. They kept their own pride, like Seatons sharp suits for a big night out, or the exhilaration Smith felt, “like the first and last man on the world”, when he ran through the fields alone, and wouldnt pander to the Borstal governor by winning a race for him. “Its a fine life, if you dont weaken,” was one Sillitoe motto. Another was “Dont let the bastards grind you down.”然而他们不会屈于任何人,无论对方是评级员、工头、老板还是政府。他们梦想着——假如他们能出人头地……事实上这不大可能——用黄色炸药将这些杂碎统统炸到天上,或是将他们戳在墙上抽几鞭子。这并非共产主义者的阶级仇恨。苏联曾热情款待过西氏,可他回想的却是那无情的混乱。资本主义与共产主义双双劫掠了人的自由。因而,西氏笔下的主人公反抗所有的体制权威,除了用“我们”PK“他们”来形容之外,这些“英雄”不属于任何阶级。他们的个性是骄傲的,犹如西顿身上很潮的饰适合于意义重大的节日之夜,犹如史密斯所感到的亢奋激动那样——当他独自跑着穿越田野,违背教养院院长令其为他夺冠的意志时,他觉得自己“就像第一个和最后一个在这世上的人”。“你若坚强,生活就美好”恰是西氏的一句座右铭。另一句则是“别让那些杂碎整垮你”。Mapping out the world规划人生Writers about the poor tended to be middle-class patronisers. But Mr Sillitoe was a product of those sooty red-brick terraces, where he remembered his mother, beaten yet again by his father, holding her head over a bucket so the blood didnt run on the carpet; where he would forage in tips for bottles to claim the deposit, or pick flowers from the park to sell. At 14 he became a labourer and lathe-operator, as well as a serial lover of the local girls. 以穷人为写作对象的作家常会摆出一副中产者高人一等的样子。西氏却不同,他本人即是那种已被煤烟熏个乌黑的红砖排房所产的“一件产品”,他仍记得,就在这儿,被父亲反复殴打的母亲把头架在桶边好让血别流到毯子上;还是在这儿,他会钻进垃圾堆里找瓶子而讨要押金,或是从公园那头折些花儿来贩卖。十四岁时,西利托成长为一名车工兼户外蓝领,同时也与当地多名女孩保持恋情。His father was illiterate, unable to make sense of the “mystifying jungle” of the world. Hence his violence. Young Alan mapped out his own paths, first in out-of-town fields through nettles as tall as himself, and then by slowly building up exotic worlds of words. He won a Bible as a prize, which stayed on his desk for good; more books, and maps, were bought with precious pence, or came home under his coat. Confinement with TB in his 20s introduced him to Dickens and Dostoevsky, Balzac and Plato, and spurred him to write. Both writing and exploring kept him one cool, cunning step ahead of his oppressors. If he could not do either, he felt his head would burst from sheer misery.他的父亲是个文盲,无法理解这世界“令人困惑的丛林”意义,因而迷信暴力。年青的艾伦起先在长得跟他一样高的荨麻地里“精心”规划着人生,后来便慢慢用词语搭建起绚烂的奇异世界。有人奖赏他一本《圣经》,此物却一直搁在他的书桌上。少的可怜的便士被他用来买书和地图,兴许他还会将这些东西偷偷藏进外套再带回家。到二十多岁,因身患肺结核,他卧床阅读狄更斯、陀思妥耶夫斯基、巴尔扎克和柏拉图,并由此激发了写作欲。似乎创作和考察让他在压迫者面前保持冷静、狡黠。倘若不去做这些,西氏便觉得自己的头要在全然的痛苦中爆掉了。He wrote, then, prodigiously, for half a century: novels, short stories, poetry, autobiography. The poems were feeble, and the stories that followed his two groundbreaking works tended to tell, less well, the same tale of Everyman against the system. Though he had started “Saturday Night and Sunday Morning” under an olive tree in Majorca, and lived many years in the Mediterranean sun, he needed Nottingham, and the pounding roar of the Raleigh factory. Occasionally he wandered back, but settling was difficult. He came to sympathise, over the years, as much with the worlds displaced and hounded Jews as with his drunken proletarian heroes.此后,西利托爆发出惊人的能量,写作生涯长达半个世纪,涉及长篇小说、短篇小说、诗歌和自传。他的诗未免虚弱乏力。而继前期两部开创性作品之后的短篇也乏善可陈,因为未能推陈出新,题材往往是讲述普罗大众与体制作斗争的老套故事。西氏曾在西班牙马略卡岛的一株油橄榄树下开始构思《周六晚和周日晨》,亦在地中海地区生活了多年,即便如此,他依然需要诺丁汉,需要Raleigh车厂里面洪亮的金属撞击声。偶尔,他会回来转转,但要定居则很难。对于笔下喝得烂醉的无产阶级主人公,西氏多年来所抱有的同情与他对待那些流离失所、时常遭受袭扰的犹太人时的感情其实并无二致。Alongside the “Angry Young Men” of post-war literary Britain—Kingsley Amis, John Osborne and the rest—he cut a different figure. It was not the constant pipe, or the Nottingham vowels, or the friendly but disconcerting stare. It was his refusal to be labelled as angry, or as anything else, and his indifference to literary acclaim. His books could sink or swim. He had his own worth, and his own pride. As Arthur Seaton put it, “He was nothing at all when people tried to tell him what he was.”相较英国战后那些“愤怒青年”作家——比如金斯利·埃米斯、约翰·奥斯本和他人而言,西利托显得卓尔不群。这份独特,和那一成不变的烟斗无关,和那一口诺丁汉腔的乡音无关,也和他那友善却令人尴尬的眼神无关。不妨说,西氏的特色乃在于两点:一是他拒绝被外界贴上“愤怒派”或其他流派的标签;二是对于圈内对其作品的褒扬,他漠不关心。他的书可以自己去闯。他有他的价值,也有他自己的骄傲。就像书中人亚瑟·西顿说的那样:“若还要人们去告诉他他是什么时, 那么此人连屁都不是了。”201207/192352

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