天涯部落

小圈子,大声音!呼朋引伴网聚部落!

创建新部落?

成都常规孕前检查飞度技术快对话网

楼主:飞度技术养生回答 时间:2019年03月27日 08:16:56 点击:0 回复:0
脱水模式给他打赏只看楼主阅读设置
A trickle of statements from Chinese leaders in recent months have given hope to some residents of Beijing and other smog-choked Chinese cities that they might regularly breathe clean air within a few years. Prime Minister Li Keqiang in March declared a “war against pollution,” for instance.中国领导人最近几个月发表的一系列声明,给北京及其他被烟雾笼罩的城市的居民带来了希望,他们可能会在几年之内,实现经常呼吸新鲜空气的梦想。例如,中国总理李克强在今年3月「向环境污染宣战」。But China Daily, an official English-language newspaper, came in with a reality check on Wednesday in the form of an article published under the headline “Beijing Expects Healthy Air by 2030.”但周三,官方英文报纸《中国日报》的一篇题为《北京空气质量有望在2030年达标》的报道,将人们拉回到现实中来。The article went on to say that it would be 16 years before levels of dangerous fine particulate matter in the Chinese capital would drop to an “internationally recognized safe level.” The fine particulate matter is known as PM 2.5 because its diameter is less than 2.5 microns. It can penetrate deep into the lungs and enter the bloodstream.该报道称,北京地区的危险细颗粒物浓度降到「国际公认的安全水平」需要16年的时间。这种细颗粒物的直径不足2.5微米,因此被称为PM2.5。它能够深入肺部,并进入血液。The 16-year time frame means that anyone born today in Beijing who grows up in the city will spend his or her entire childhood breathing unhealthy air. In recent years, parents in Beijing, a city of more than 21 million, have become increasingly anxious about the air quality and other forms of pollution. Many Chinese who can afford to do so are moving abroad or decamping to cleaner parts of China. Multinational companies are having a much harder time recruiting foreign workers for Beijing jobs. Beijing residents are stocking up on expensive air purifiers, and some international schools have even set up outdoor sports domes made of synthetic fabric (what some parents are calling “pollution domes”).16 年的时间意味着,如今在北京出生、长大的儿童,在整个童年时期都将呼吸有害空气。最近几年,居住在北京的家长们日益担心空气质量及其他污染。北京人口已经 超过了2100万。很多有条件的中国人都已搬到国外,或逃到国内空气比较清洁的地区。如今,跨国公司要招聘外国人到北京工作比以前难了很多。北京居民采购 昂贵的空气凈化器,一些国际学校甚至还在室外运动场上搭起由混合纤维制成的顶篷(一些家长称之为「污染篷」)。Recent scientific studies have shown that the type of air pollution in northern China can shave five years off the average life span, lead to permanent lung impairment in children and contribute to slow brain development and personality problems in children whose mothers were exposed to the bad air during pregnancy.最近的科学研究发现,中国北部地区的空气污染类型能使平均寿命缩减五年,使儿童遭受永久性的肺损伤,母亲在怀期间呼吸有毒空气还会导致孩子大脑发育缓慢,存在性格问题。Most of the air pollution in Beijing comes from coal-burning power plants and factories in nearby provinces. Emissions from vehicles, especially those using diesel gasoline, are also major contributors.北京地区的空气污染主要源自周边省份的燃煤发电厂和工厂。汽车——特别是使用柴油、汽油的汽车排放的尾气也是主要因素。“Improving air quality in the city is not going to be an easy task,” Pan Tao, head of the Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection, said at a conference, according to China Daily. “It takes time and effort to turn the ship around.”据《中国日报》报道,「改善北京空气质量不是一项简单的任务,」北京市环境保护科学研究院院长潘涛在参加会议时说。「改变现状需要时间和精力。」The concentration level of PM 2.5 cited by China Daily as “healthy,” and supposedly attainable by 2030, was 35 micrograms per cubic meter. The article said the World Health Organization had stated that PM 2.5 levels should not exceed this.《中国日报》报道称,PM2.5浓度的「健康」标准为35微克/立方米,北京有望在2030年达标。文章称,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization,简称WHO)已经说明,PM2.5浓度不应该超过这个标准。Actually, the W.H.O. has said that PM 2.5 should not exceed 25 micrograms per cubic meter over a 24-hour period. By that standard, Beijing still might not have healthy air by 2030. The limit of 35 micrograms per cubic meter, mistakenly cited by China Daily as the W.H.O. standard, is actually just an interim target set by the W.H.O. for heavily polluted countries. For all nations, the W.H.O. recommends achieving the standard of 25 micrograms per cubic meter.实 际上,WHO说的是PM2.5平均浓度要在24小时内不超过25微克/立方米。按照这个标准,北京的空气质量可能在2030年前无法达标。《中国日报》错 误地引用了WHO设定的35微克/立方米的标准,实际上那是WHO为污染严重的国家设定的过渡目标。WHO建议所有国家达到25微克/立方米的标准。 China Daily cited Mr. Pan as saying an average PM 2.5 concentration of 35 micrograms per cubic meter could be reached by 2030.《中国日报》援引潘涛的话称,北京的PM2.5年均浓度有望在2030年达标。The Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau has said the average PM 2.5 concentration last year was 89.5 micrograms per cubic meter, which is more than 3.5 times the W.H.O. recommended exposure limit. On a particularly grim day in January 2013 that is now commonly called the “airpocalypse” by English speakers, parts of Beijing had PM 2.5 concentrations that were 40 times the W.H.O. recommended limit.北 京市环保局曾表示,去年PM2.5年均浓度为89.5微克/立方米,是WHO建议的接触限度的三倍多。在2013年1月空气格外糟糕的一天——说英语的人 通常称之为「airpocalypse」(空气末日),北京部分地区的PM2.5浓度是WHO建议的接触限度的40倍。On Tuesday, which happened to be the 93rd birthday of the Chinese Communist Party, the PM 2.5 concentration in Beijing hit 168 micrograms per cubic meter, almost seven times the W.H.O. exposure limit, according to the ed States Embassy’s rooftop air monitor. The air was a dismal gray soup the entire day, and the embassy rated it as “very unhealthy” in the evening.美国大使馆屋顶上的空气污染监测器显示,周二,北京的PM2.5浓度达到了168微克/立方米,几乎是WHO接触限度的七倍,这一天正好是中国共产党的93岁生日。天空一整天都非常阴沉,大使馆在晚上将空气质量评定为「非常不健康」。“The current pollution emission is far beyond the environmental capacity in the city, and any adverse climate condition would easily result in smoggy days,” Mr. Pan said, according to China Daily. “The key to current air quality improvement lies in emission reduction.”据《中国日报》报道,「当前北京的污染物排放量仍远超环境容量,任何恶劣的气候条件都容易产生雾霾天,」潘涛说。「目前,改善空气质量关键在于减排。」An antipollution plan announced last September by the State Council, China’s cabinet, said the crowded and filthy Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area of northern China had to reduce PM 2.5 levels by 25 percent before 2017. But Mr. Pan said that even if Beijing and the nearby areas were to meet that target, the level of particulate matter would still be harmful to people’s health.中国国务院(相当于中国的内阁)去年9月公布了大气污染防治计划,称北方的京津冀地区必须在2017年前将PM2.5浓度降低25%。但潘涛表示,即便北京及周边地区达到了该目标,颗粒物的浓度仍对健康有害。In March, the Ministry of Environmental Protection announced that only three of 74 Chinese cities whose air is monitored by the central government met minimum standards for air quality last year. The State Council said in February that it would offer a total of 10 billion renminbi, or .65 billion, to cities and regions that made “significant progress” this year in air pollution control.今年3月,中国环境保护部宣布,去年中央政府监测的74个城市中,只有3个城市达到了最低空气质量标准。中国国务院在今年2月宣布,今年将为那些在空气污染治理方面取得「重大进步」的城市和地区提供总计100亿元人民币的奖励。 /201407/309863Let#39;s say you#39;re an international spy and a dastardly villain has just used his laser eye to cut the cable to your elevator car, sending you plunging hundreds of stories to your death. Everyone knows the best way to survive such a fate would be to jump just before you hit, right?假设你是名国际间谍,现在有个恶棍用激光弄断你所乘电梯的缆绳,意图使你从几百层楼高的地方坠亡。所有人都认为最好的逃生办法就是在坠地之前跳起来,这样是否正确呢?Well, not really. As proven by the Myth Busters, that just doesn#39;t work.其实不然。密斯·巴斯特实,这样做于事无补。As part of a promotion for a book entitled ;How to Survive Anything,; travel-book giant Lonely Planet has just released a series of s showing how to survive a variety of situations from getting locked out of your hotel room naked, to yes -- how to emerge from a plunging elevator alive.世界最大的私人旅游指南出版商《孤独星球》在推销《如何脱离险境》一书活动中发布了一系列相关视频,比如说,一个人什么也没穿,还被锁在了酒店房间门外,在这种情形下该怎么办,又或者,怎样从一直往下坠的故障电梯中逃生。Note that steps given in the Lonely Planet , embedded below, are in contradiction to the advice Eliot H. Frank, at the time a research engineer for the Center for Biomedical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, gave to a New York Times er in 2012.要说明的是,《孤独星球》在其视频中给出的措施步骤与艾略特·H·弗兰克,时任麻省理工学院生物医学工程研究中心工程师,于2012年向《纽约时报》读者给出的意见是相左的。Frank said that the best course of action would be to lie flat on the floor to distribute the impact across your whole body. And he specifically said not to bend your knees or brace yourself (two pieces of advice given in the Lonely Planet ) because ;at high G-forces, your legs would simply not be able to support the weight of your body. Even the weight of your own head would be too much for your neck to support.;弗兰克建议,最好的办法就是躺平,使受力遍及全身。他还专门指出,最好不要屈膝或抱住自己(这两点恰是《孤独星球》在视频中提到的建议),因为“在高倍重力下,你单单靠腿是撑不了你自身重量的,甚至你的脖子也难以撑头的重量”。So it#39;s pretty much your call. Will you go with the travel book publisher, or an MIT scientist? My advice? Stick with the engineer on this one, but go with Lonely Planet on the naked-in-your-hotel thing. They really do have some good ideas for that situation.总之呢,怎么样来由你自己决定。是听《孤独星球》的呢?还是听艾略特·H·弗兰克的?我的意见?在电梯事故上还是听这名工程师的吧。而在赤身被锁酒店房门外的情况下,《孤独星球》的一些建议措施还是很好的。 /201507/388205Well that took longer than it should have. The UK government has finally started selling down its 78 per cent stake in Royal Bank of Scotland. It should have started the process years ago. The shares closed at 338p on Monday. In August 2013 they were trading at around 340p, and in the intervening period there have been no dividends. About 31bn of UK taxpayers’ money has been tied up for two years in the bank, with no return. The public would have done better had its money been in a savings account, despite the woefully-low interest rates on offer. The government, it seems, is not a good allocator of investment capital.这件事本不该花这么长时间。英国政府终于开始出售其所持的苏格兰皇家(RBS) 78%的股份。它本该在数年前就开始这么做。周一,该行股票收于每股338便士。2013年8月,股价约为每股340便士,而且在政府干预期间未派发任何股息。约310亿英镑的英国纳税人资金被锁定在该行股份上长达两年,没有获得任何回报。如果当时把这些钱放在储蓄账户里,公众的收益原本还会高一些,尽管提供的利率低得可怜。看起来,英国政府并不擅长配置投资资本。An earlier sale would have been beneficial all around. Lloyds Banking Groupshares have risen 11 per cent since the government started selling down its stake in September 2013. In the same period, RBS has lost 7 per cent. True, RBS has been in a much weaker position than Lloyds. But the government stake, and the real (and realised) threat of political intervention in the bank has been a drag on the share price. Freed of that risk, the shares might have performed much better. And by selling down the stake earlier, the government might have enabled RBS to raise equity on the capital markets. It has been unable to do that (imagine the outcry if the government had ended up putting more money into RBS), so it has had to sell assets such as Citizens, its US bank, instead.更早一些出售原本对各方都有利。劳埃德集团(Lloyds Banking Group)股价在英国政府2013年9月开始减持以来已上涨11%。同一时期,苏格兰皇家的股价下跌了7%。没错,这与劳埃德相比,苏格兰皇家的状况一直疲弱得多。但政府持股以及政治干预该行的切实威胁(这种威胁最终变成了现实)一直在拖累该行股价。如果没有这些风险,苏格兰皇家的股价表现可能会好得多。此外,如果英国政府更早一些减持股份,苏格兰皇家原本能够在资本市场筹集股本。但该行一直无法这样做(想象一下如果政府最终要向该行注入更多资金所引发的强烈抗议吧),因此它不得不转而出售资产,例如旗下的美国Citizens。One of the reasons that the government may have been holding back is the risk of being seen to sell at a discount to the “in” price of 502p. But this argument was always a red herring. The in price is irrelevant. The government did not invest in the bank in order to make a profit, it invested in order to avoid the consequences of a collapse. With the threat of a collapse gone, there was little reason to hold on. As any er of the small print of investment literature knows, past prices are no guide to the future. RBS shares may never return to 502p — there is no point assuming that day will eventually arrive. Better for the UK taxpayer to sell out now, and to continue doing so (via quick, cheap institutional placements, rather than lengthy, expensive public offerings) until the stake has gone altogether.英国政府一直不启动减持的原因之一或许是,这么做可能会被人认为是在折价出售(相对于每股502便士的买入价格而言)。但这种论点其实一直是在转移人们的注意力。买入价格无关紧要。英国政府投资该行不是为了盈利,而是为了避免其倒闭。当倒闭威胁消失后,就没什么理由再继续持有了。正如任何读过投资宣传材料附属细则的人所熟知的,过去的价格对未来没有指导意义。苏格兰皇家的股价可能永远回不到每股502便士,也没有必要假设那一天终将到来。对英国纳税人来说,最好是立刻抛出并持续抛出(通过快速、低成本的机构配售,而非漫长、高成本的公开发售),直至彻底出清所持股份。 /201508/390821China#39;s industrial growth engine increased output slightly less than economists had forecast in July, amid a sharp drop in new lending and a property downturn.7月份,中国工业产出增长略低于经济学家预期。Output rose by 9 per cent, year on year, last month. Analysts had forecast growth of 9.2 per cent, the same level as in June.中国工业产出当月同比增长9%,而此前分析师预计增幅将达到9.2%,与6月份持平。Data out earlier on Wednesday showed new Chinese lending has fallen unexpectedly to its lowest since October 2008.周三早些时候公布的数据显示,中国新增贷款出人意料地跌至2008年10月份以来的最低水平。Output has stayed resilient, however, as the Beijing government has reverted to tried-and-tested ways of juicing up growth as policy makers strive to meet a 7.5 per cent GDP growth target for 2014.而中国工业产出相对依然坚挺,这是因为中国决策者想努力实现2014年国内生产总值(GDP)增长7.5%的目标,为此又拿出久经考验的老办法:刺激措施。Recent stimulus measures have included a programme to extend credit to agricultural and small businesses. Meanwhile, a host of cities that previously had purchasing limits for properties have relaxed them.近期推出的刺激性举措包括向农业企业及小企业发放贷款,同时很多城市放宽了房产限购政策。Retail sales also rose at a slower rate than analysts expected in July, gaining 12.2 per cent against forecasts for a 12.5 per cent increase.此外,7月份社会消费品零售总额同比增长12.2%,也低于分析师给出的12.5%的预期。 /201408/321203Our ancestors lived in eras we call the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Ours is the “fossil-fuel age”. The energy we have extracted from the earth’s reserves of fossilised sunlight has sp (unequally shared) abundance across humanity. Will this continue? Can we manage its impact on our environment? The answers will shape the future of our complex global civilisation.我们祖先生活的时代,我们称之为石器时代、青铜时代和铁器时代。我们生活的时代是“化石燃料时代”。我们从地球上的化石化太阳能储量中提取的能量已将富足传播给整个人类,尽管这种传播并不均匀。这个时代会延续下去吗?我们能管控化石燃料对人类环境的影响吗?这些问题的将决定我们复杂的全球文明的未来。As always, BP’s Energy Outlook provides a glimpse into a possible future. No doubt, its forecasts will be wrong. But it tells us what well-informed people at the heart of the oil and gas industry consider “the likely path of global energy markets to 2035”. It puts forward five important propositions about a plausible energy future.像以往一样,BP此次发布的《能源展望》(Energy Outlook)为我们提供了一个一睹可能前景的机会。毫无疑问,它的预测将是错误的。但它告诉了我们,身处油气行业核心的消息灵通人士所认为的“全球能源市场至2035年的可能发展路径”是什么。这份报告给出了一个貌似有道理的能源前景,并围绕这一前景提出了五个重要观点。First, global economic output is forecast to rise by 115 per cent by 2035. Asian emerging economies — principally China and India — are expected to generate more than 60 per cent of that increase.首先,全球经济产出预计到2035年时将增长115%。亚洲新兴经济体(主要是中国和印度)对这一增幅的贡献预计将超过60%。The primary driver of the rise in global output is expected to be a 75 per cent jump in global average real output per head, as the prosperity of emerging economies catches up with that of high-income countries. Population growth plays a distinctly subsidiary role. It is not the number of people, but rather their prosperity, that drives demand for commercial energy.全球经济产出增长的主要推动力,预计将来自全球人均实际产出75%的跃升,而新兴经济体的繁荣程度将赶上高收入国家。人口增长起到了明显的辅助作用。但推动商业能源需求的并不是人类的数量,而是人类的繁荣。Second, as a result of rapidly rising energy efficiency, energy consumption is forecast to grow by only 37 per cent. This is far less than the rise in output of real goods and services.其次,由于能效迅速提高,能源消费预计仅将增长37%。这个数字远小于商品和务实际产出的增幅。Third, emissions of carbon dioxide are forecast to grow by 25 per cent, a growth rate of about 1 per cent a year. In terms of the link between output and emissions, this is a huge achievement. But — given the need to cut emissions outright, in order to have a good chance of limiting the global average temperature rise to below 2C — it is wholly inadequate. Thus, in 2035, emissions of CO2 are forecast to be 18bn tonnes above levels suggested by the International Energy Agency’s “450 Scenario”. This seeks to limit atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration to the equivalent of about 450 parts per million of CO2. If such targets are to be met, something far more radical needs to occur. (See charts.)第三,二氧化碳排放量预计将增长25%,即年增长1%左右。就经济产出与碳排放之间的关联而言,这是一个巨大的成就。但是,考虑到有必要彻底减排、如此才有机会将全球平均气温升幅控制在2摄氏度以下,这一成就还远远不够。如果真是增长25%,那么2035年的二氧化碳排放量预计将比国际能源署(IEA)“450情景”建议的水平高180亿吨。“450情景”寻求将大气中温室气体的浓度限定在450ppm二氧化碳当量。要实现这样的目标,就必须作出一些激进得多的努力。(见图表)Fourth, improvements in energy efficiency are a far more important driver of the relatively low growth in emissions than shifts in the fuel mix. This is despite a substantial rise in use of renewables. So, between 2013 and 2035, output of renewable energy is forecast to grow by 320 per cent. Even so, its share in primary energy production is forecast to grow only from 2.6 per cent to 6.7 per cent. The combined share of renewables, hydroelectricity and nuclear power grows only from 9 per cent to 19 per cent. This, then, is expected to remain a fossil-fuel age.第四,能效提高是造成碳排放增长相对较低的主要因素,燃料结构变化则是一个重要性低得多的因素,尽管可再生能源的使用量有大幅增长。2013年到2035年,可再生能源的产量预计将增长320%。尽管如此,可再生能源产量在一次能源产量中的占比,预计仅会从2.6%升至6.7%。可再生能源、水电和核电产量的合计占比仅会从9%升至19%。因此,预计到2035年时我们仍将处于化石燃料时代。Fifth, the revolution in the production of shale gas and tight oil is expected to continue, with their share in primary energy production rising to about 10 per cent. An important result is large shifts in patterns of trade. So the US is forecast to shift from being a net importer of 12m barrels a day of oil in 2005 to being a net exporter by 2035. Meanwhile, China is forecast to shift to being a net importer of more than 13m b/d by 2035 (from self-sufficiency in the early 2000s); and India to being a net importer of about 7m b/d. Such shifts have huge geopolitical implications.第五,页岩气和致密油的生产革命预计将持续下去,它们在一次能源产量中的占比将升至约10%。一个重要的结果是贸易格局的大转变。也就是说,预计到2035年时,美国将从石油净进口国(2005年日均净进口石油120万桶)变为净出口国。而中国到2035年时,预计将从2000年代初的石油自给自足变为一个日均净进口石油逾130万桶的国家;印度预计将变成一个日均净进口石油约700万桶的国家。这一转变将产生巨大的地缘政治影响。It would be wrong to describe these forecasts as simply “business as usual”. They actually imply a faster rise in energy efficiency than between 2000 and 2013. But they are not radical. The world would continue to rely overwhelmingly on fossil fuels and it would emit ever greater quantities of greenhouse gases. Could we do better?如果把以上预测描述为就是“一切如常”,那就错了。实际上,它们意味着能效提高的速度将快于2000年至2013年间。但这不会起到根本作用。世界将继续严重依赖化石燃料,全球温室气体的排放量会越来越大。我们能做得更好些吗?I start from the presumption that humanity will aspire to and often manage to achieve the prosperity now taken for granted in rich countries. So we need an accelerated technological revolution. At the Oslo Energy Forum last month, I heard Amory Lovins of theRocky Mountain Institute describe just such a revolution. He argued, for example, that US gross domestic product in 2050 could be 2.5 times what it is today, even if the country stopped using oil, coal and nuclear energy altogether and cut its use of natural gas by one-third. This would mean carbon emissions of just one-fifth of their present level. Moreover, he argued, the revolution could well be driven by market forces alone, given the growing economic superiority of the new technologies. There might, he suggests, be no need to to take direct policy action against rising emissions of carbon dioxide.富国如今存在着一种想当然的推断,即认为人类会渴望繁荣并且通常也能实现繁荣。我就从这点说起。因为渴望繁荣,所以我们需要加速技术革命。在上月召开的奥斯陆能源论坛(Oslo Energy Forum)上,我听到洛基山研究所(Rocky Mountain Institute)的艾默里#8226;洛文斯(Amory Lovins)恰巧描述了这样一场革命。他举例辩称,即便美国彻底停用石油、煤炭以及核能、并将天然气用量削减三分之一,该国2050年的国内生产总值(GDP)也可达到今天的2.5倍。这意味着碳排放量仅为美国今天水平的五分之一。他还辩称,考虑到新技术带来的经济优势日益增加,很可能单靠市场力量便可以有效推进这场革命。他暗示,也许没有必要针对日益增长的二氧化碳排放采取直接政策行动。The sense of the BP report (not surprisingly, perhaps, given that BP is a fossil-fuel producer) is that such a radical and rapid market-driven revolution is unlikely. The purported obstacles are many: costs, technological limits, slow turnover of the capital stock, inability to implement policy globally and natural inertia. In brief, I fear BP is right about the obstacles. But Mr Lovins might be right about the opportunities, though only if policy makers give them a big push.BP报告的言下之意是这样一场彻底、迅速、由市场驱动的革命不太可能发生(考虑到BP是一家化石燃料生产商,它持这样的观点或许并不令人意外)。报告声称这面临很多障碍:成本、技术局限、资本存量周转缓慢、政策无法在全球范围内推行以及自然惯性。简言之,BP对这些障碍的判断恐怕是正确的。但洛文斯对机遇的判断可能也是正确的,尽管前提条件是政策制定者大力推动这些机遇。If governments could agree to implement a tax on carbon, they would give a big impulse towards an energy future that is more efficient and less polluting. Governments should invest strongly in fundamental science and new technologies. Finally, governments can help the sp of new technologies abroad and help finance their uptake at home. With this push, normal market forces should pull the world economy towards a more sustainable future.如果各国政府能答应实施碳税,将是对更更低污染能源前景的有力撑。各国政府应该在基础科学和新技术领域大力投资。最后一点,各国政府可帮助在海外传播新技术,并为新技术在国内的消化吸收提供资金帮助。凭借这种持,正常的市场力量将拉动世界经济走向更可持续的未来。Mass poverty is not an option. But neither is taking ever-bigger gambles with the climate. The right course has to lie in between. To put ourselves on that course, we need to wean ourselves off the excesses of the fossil-fuel age. It is a daunting challenge. But it has to be met, for our children’s sake.大规模的贫困不容接受。但是,在气候方面进行越来越危险的也不是好的选择。正确的道路必须介于两者之间。为了走上正确的道路,我们必须戒除化石燃料时代的各种无节制行为。这是一项严峻的挑战。但是,为了我们的子孙,我们必须直面这一挑战。 /201503/363293

From toothpaste to ice cream to disposable nappies, modern Chinese life has been transformed by imports. But many of those erstwhile alien products now bear Chinese brand names.从牙膏到冰淇淋、再到纸尿裤,进口产品已令中国现代生活面貌一新。但如今,曾经的舶来品中出现了许多中国品牌。More and more mainlanders are brushing their teeth with Yunnan Baiyao toothpaste, eating Yili ice cream or putting nappies made by Hengan on their babies. Multinationals still have a strong, sometimes dominant, presence in these markets, but mainland brands are exploiting local knowhow and speed to market.现在,越来越多的中国内地人用云南白药(Yunnan Baiyao)牙膏刷牙,吃伊利(Yili)冰淇淋,或者给婴儿使用恒安(Hengan)纸尿裤。跨国公司在这些市场仍拥有强大、有时是配性的地位,但中国国产品牌开始利用本地知识快速开拓市场。Disposable nappies are a case in point: many Chinese grannies did not use them to raise the current generation, but today’s urban mainland mums rely on them.纸尿裤是很能说明问题的一个例子:许多中国奶奶(外婆)带大当前一代时没有使用过它,但如今内地城市里的妈妈们却已离不开它。The market in China is highly concentrated, with 10 brands capturing 85 per cent of sales. Only one local brand has significant share: Hengan with 9 per cent, compared with 10 per cent for Kimberly-Clark of the US and nearly 29 per cent for Procter amp; Gamble.中国纸尿裤市场高度集中,十大品牌占据85%的销售额。唯有恒安一家国产品牌拥有可观的市场份额,为9%,而美国金佰利(Kimberly-Clark)份额为10%,宝洁(Pamp;G)份额接近29%。But the rapid rise in urbanisation and incomes in China is boosting demand for products such as nappies. Euromonitor, the data group, predicts that the world’s largest nappy market will nearly triple between 2010 and 2017, from Rmb20bn (.3bn) to Rmb57bn.但是,中国城市化程度的飞速提高和收入的迅速增加,提高了对纸尿裤等产品的需求。数据集团欧睿(Euromonitor)预计,2010年至2017年间,中国这个全球最大纸尿裤市场的规模将增加近两倍,由200亿元人民币(合33亿美元)增至570亿元人民币。Such growth is attracting new entrants, many of them local brands. “It is estimated there will be more than 100 foreign and domestic brands that will enter China in 2014 alone,” says Liu Yang, chief executive of Xiaolu Dingding Diapers, a mainland brand.如此增幅吸引来了新进入者,其中多是国产品牌。中国内地一家纸尿裤品牌小鹿叮叮(Xiaolu Dingding Diapers)的首席执行官刘阳表示,“据估计,仅仅2014年进入中国市场的国内外品牌就将超过100家。”Rising costs of materials and labour, changing consumer tastes and increasingly demanding consumers have made market conditions increasingly tough, retail analysts say.零售业分析师表示,原材料与劳动力成本的上升、消费者的喜好变化以及日益挑剔,导致市场状况愈加严峻。Hengan warned in its most recent results that “the short-term outlook remains challenging as a lot of players have entered into this market”.恒安在其最近发布的业绩报告中警告称,“由于有大量的生产商投入市场”,公司短期前景仍很有挑战性。Hengan says the quality of its nappies equals that of the foreign brands – Pamp;G, Kimberly-Clark and Japanese brand Unicharm together have more than half the market – but many mainland consumers disagree.恒安表示,其纸尿裤的质量可以媲美外国品牌——宝洁、金佰利和日本品牌尤妮佳(Unicharm)总共占据了一半以上的市场份额——但许多内地消费者并不认同这一点。Hengan, which expects to sell Rmb2.8bn-Rmb3bn of its Anerle nappies this year, says: “A majority of Chinese mothers believe foreign products are better than domestic ones; therefore, it is necessary to educate consumers to change their minds.”恒安表示:“大多数中国妈妈认为外国产品比国内产品好;所以,很有必要教育消费者改变观念。”该集团预计,今年安儿乐(Anerle)纸尿裤销售额将达28亿至30亿元人民币。Persuading Chinese mothers to use disposable nappies has been a slow process, says Xu Ruyi, head of China research at Mintel. “Nappies were introduced to China by Pamp;G during the 1990s and it has taken a long time for consumers to adopt the products.”英敏特(Mintel)中国研究总监徐如一表示,说中国妈妈们使用纸尿裤是一个很慢的过程。“纸尿裤是宝洁在20世纪90年代引入中国的,让中国消费者使用这一产品花了相当长的时间。”One breakthrough came with Pamp;G’s Pampers “golden sleep” campaign in 2007, focused on convincing mothers that using nappies can help babies sleep better, “which means they can grow faster and get more brain development”, says Ms Xu.徐如一表示,2007年宝洁的帮宝适(Pampers)“金质睡眠”推广活动带来了一次突破,活动的核心是让妈妈们相信,使用纸尿裤会帮婴儿们睡得更好,“这意味着他们能成长得更快、大脑发育得更好”。However, China is not a captive market for multinationals. “Competition is intense: even for big players if you don’t keep up with the competition you’ll still lose share to others,” says Ms Xu. “Consumers today are offered a much wider range of product choices compared with five or 10 years ago.”然而,跨国企业无法垄断中国市场。“竞争很激烈:即便对于大厂家而言,如果你跟不上竞争形势,你的市场份额也会被其他厂家夺走,”徐如一说,“如今的消费者面临着比5年或10年前多得多的产品选择。”Pull-up-type nappies, nappies for boys versus girls and adult nappies are all relatively new entrants to the market – the latter category is expected to grow strongly in China, the world’s largest senior market.上拉式纸尿裤、区分男婴和女婴的纸尿裤以及成人纸尿裤,都是市场上相对较新的产品——在中国这个全球最大老年人用品市场上,成人纸尿裤的销量增长预计将十分强劲。Domestic brands are “focusing more on Ramp;D and updating their production equipment because the newer the production line, the better quality the nappies will be”, says Yan Fei of Beijing’s Qinbei Research Centre.北京亲贝研究中心(Qinbei Research Centre)的Yan Fei表示,国产品牌正在“集中力量搞研发,升级他们的生产设备,因为产品线越新,纸尿裤的质量就越好。”“Intelligent” nappies, which gauge the health of a baby from its urine, and mosquito repellent nappies are under development by Chinese companies.中国企业正在研制能通过尿液判断婴儿健康状况的“智能”纸尿裤,以及驱蚊纸尿裤。Research from Mintel shows that famous brand names may actually wield less power in China than elsewhere. In the UK, says Mintel, “45 per cent of parents would go for a product they’ve used before and a low price is among the top three influencing factors”.英敏特的研究表明,实际上知名品牌在中国发挥的影响力可能小于其他地区。在英国,英敏特表示,“45%的父母会选择他们曾经用过的产品,价格低只是最重要的三个影响因素之一”。But in China, quality is king: freedom from harmful substances, quality, suitability for sensitive skin and absorbency are most important for Chinese consumers, says Ms Xu.徐如一表示,但在中国,质量为王:中国消费者最看重的因素是不含有害物质、质量过硬、适应敏感皮肤,以及吸水性强。China’s birth rate may be low, but spending on only babies is a favourite pastime and Chinese mothers sometimes use up to 20 nappies per day to avoid nappy rash, says Mr Yan.中国的出生率可能很低,但为独生子女花钱是一项最喜欢的消遣,中国妈妈们有时每天使用至多20块纸尿裤,以防止婴儿出现尿布疹。Big-city mothers have more and more money to spend on nappies and small city mums are just beginning to think of using them.大城市的妈妈们用来购买纸尿裤上的钱越来越多,而小城市的妈妈们才开始考虑使用纸尿裤。Like toothpaste and ice cream, nappies are becoming a domestic necessity in China, and everyone from local to multinational brands is eager to get a piece of the action.在中国,纸尿裤正像牙膏和冰淇淋一样变成一种家用必需品,无论国产还是跨国品牌,都急切地要从中分一杯羹。 /201409/331788

  • 成都中医治不孕医院
  • 成都那家医院检查不孕花钱少飞度技术健康门户
  • 内江市第二人民医院是公办的吗飞度管家医院排行
  • 南充去哪家医院做复通手术好
  • 绵阳哪个医院治疗女性不孕飞管家快交流网
  • 成都盆底康复治疗疼吗飞度排名养生对话成都第九医院剖腹产需多少钱
  • 飞度技术名医新津县妇幼保健院做人流
  • 度排名快答武侯区治疗不孕不育哪家医院最好的飞排名养生医生
  • 四川省妇幼保健院做无痛人流
  • 宜宾第二人民医院修复处女膜飞度咨询快交流网
  • 四川成都中医院在那儿飞度技术在线咨询新津县中心医院电话多少
  • 四川省第五人民医院人流医院
  • 飞管家知道健康绵阳市妇幼保健院人流费用
  • 成都市治不孕不育多少钱
  • 飞度搜病网成都无痛人流那家好飞度【快速问医生】
  • 飞度管家养生咨询成都怀孕一个月打胎要多少钱
  • 四川医院不孕不育飞度管家快问成都市中医药大学第一附属医院怎么去
  • 飞排名权威医院成都哪里看不孕不育最好飞度健康调查
  • 大邑县妇幼保健院几楼飞度咨询医院排行
  • 宜宾市人流手术多少钱
  • 成都女人做孕前检查
  • 飞度黑龙江新闻合江县人民医院看妇科
  • 飞度【服务平台】四川大学华西第四医院宫颈疾病
  • 成都十院看病口碑度排名在线咨询
  • 绵阳治疗输卵管阻塞的医院
  • 四川华西妇产儿童医院网上预约系统
  • 成都市第二人民医院的具体地址
  • 四川大学附属生殖医院飞度技术快问
  • 飞度新闻服务平台南充医院做不孕不育
  • 自贡市治疗内分泌性不孕不育价格表
  • 相关阅读
  • 瞒天过海!集体耕地上建厂房!村民:相关部门集体哑火(三)
  • 暮影战神武灵攻略大全
  • 唐嫣赵丽颖吴昕林允儿李易峰和谁最有感(图)
  • 酒类电商双罢斗
  • 南京查处违规补缴社保证明份购房证明被注销
  • 内蒙古自治区政协原副主席赵黎平一审被判处死刑
  • 近日李念与刚斩获年北京青年电影节影帝的巩峥出现在街边
  • 徐娇穿白袜撑伞古典韵味十足邻家有女初长成
  • 单机斗地主下载:首存优惠
  • 小学生作业本开口说话曝光盗伐林木团伙
  • 相关推荐

    发表回复

    请遵守天涯社区公约言论规则,不得违反国家法律法规